How to write a custom storage class¶
If you need to provide custom file storage – a common example is storing files on some remote system – you can do so by defining a custom storage class. You’ll need to follow these steps:
Your custom storage system must be a subclass of
from django.core.files.storage import Storage class MyStorage(Storage): ...
Django must be able to instantiate your storage system without any arguments. This means that any settings should be taken from
from django.conf import settings from django.core.files.storage import Storage class MyStorage(Storage): def __init__(self, option=None): if not option: option = settings.CUSTOM_STORAGE_OPTIONS ...
In addition, if your class provides local file storage, it must override the
Your storage class must be deconstructible so it can be serialized when it’s used on a field in a migration. As long as your field has arguments that are themselves serializable, you can use the
django.utils.deconstruct.deconstructibleclass decorator for this (that’s what Django uses on FileSystemStorage).
By default, the following methods raise
NotImplementedError and will
typically have to be overridden:
Note however that not all these methods are required and may be deliberately omitted. As it happens, it is possible to leave each method unimplemented and still have a working Storage.
By way of example, if listing the contents of certain storage backends turns
out to be expensive, you might decide not to implement
Another example would be a backend that only handles writing to files. In this case, you would not need to implement any of the above methods.
Ultimately, which of these methods are implemented is up to you. Leaving some methods unimplemented will result in a partial (possibly broken) interface.
You’ll also usually want to use hooks specifically designed for custom storage objects. These are:
Storage.open(), this is the actual mechanism the storage class
uses to open the file. This must return a
File object, though in most cases,
you’ll want to return some subclass here that implements logic specific to the
backend storage system. The
FileNotFoundError exception should be raised
when a file doesn’t exist.
name will already have gone through
get_available_name(), and the
content will be a
File object itself.
Should return the actual name of the file saved (usually the
in, but if the storage needs to change the file name return the new name
Returns a filename suitable for use with the underlying storage system. The
name argument passed to this method is either the original filename sent to
the server or, if
upload_to is a callable, the filename returned by that
method after any path information is removed. Override this to customize how
non-standard characters are converted to safe filenames.
The code provided on
Storage retains only alpha-numeric characters, periods
and underscores from the original filename, removing everything else.
Returns an alternative filename based on the
parameters. By default, an underscore plus a random 7 character alphanumeric
string is appended to the filename before the extension.
Returns a filename that is available in the storage mechanism, possibly taking
the provided filename into account. The
name argument passed to this method
will have already cleaned to a filename valid for the storage system, according
get_valid_name() method described above.
The length of the filename will not exceed
max_length, if provided. If a
free unique filename cannot be found, a
SuspiciousFileOperation exception is raised.
If a file with
name already exists,
get_alternative_name() is called to
obtain an alternative name.
Use your custom storage engine¶
The first step to using your custom storage with Django is to tell Django about
the file storage backend you’ll be using. This is done using the
STORAGES setting. This setting maps storage aliases, which are a way
to refer to a specific storage throughout Django, to a dictionary of settings
for that specific storage backend. The settings in the inner dictionaries are
described fully in the
Storages are then accessed by alias from from the
from django.core.files.storage import storages example_storage = storages["example"]