# Geographic Database Functions¶

The functions documented on this page allow users to access geographic database functions to be used in annotations, aggregations, or filters in Django.

Example:

```
>>> from django.contrib.gis.db.models.functions import Length
>>> Track.objects.annotate(length=Length('line')).filter(length__gt=100)
```

Not all backends support all functions, so refer to the documentation of each
function to see if your database backend supports the function you want to use.
If you call a geographic function on a backend that doesn’t support it, you’ll
get a `NotImplementedError`

exception.

Function’s summary:

Measurement | Relationships | Operations | Editors | Output format | Miscellaneous |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

`Area` |
`BoundingCircle` |
`Difference` |
`ForceRHR` |
`AsGeoJSON` |
`IsValid` |

`Distance` |
`Centroid` |
`Intersection` |
`MakeValid` |
`AsGML` |
`MemSize` |

`Length` |
`Envelope` |
`SymDifference` |
`Reverse` |
`AsKML` |
`NumGeometries` |

`Perimeter` |
`PointOnSurface` |
`Union` |
`Scale` |
`AsSVG` |
`NumPoints` |

`SnapToGrid` |
`GeoHash` |
||||

`Transform` |
|||||

`Translate` |

`Area`

¶

*Availability*: MySQL, Oracle,
PostGIS, SpatiaLite

Accepts a single geographic field or expression and returns the area of the
field as an `Area`

measure.

MySQL and SpatiaLite without LWGEOM don’t support area calculations on geographic SRSes.

In older versions, a raw value was returned on MySQL when used on projected SRS.

`AsGeoJSON`

¶

*Availability*: PostGIS,
SpatiaLite

Accepts a single geographic field or expression and returns a GeoJSON representation of the geometry. Note that the result is
not a complete GeoJSON structure but only the `geometry`

key content of a
GeoJSON structure. See also GeoJSON Serializer.

Example:

```
>>> City.objects.annotate(json=AsGeoJSON('point')).get(name='Chicago').json
{"type":"Point","coordinates":[-87.65018,41.85039]}
```

Keyword Argument | Description |
---|---|

`bbox` |
Set this to `True` if you want the bounding box
to be included in the returned GeoJSON. |

`crs` |
Set this to `True` if you want the coordinate
reference system to be included in the returned
GeoJSON. |

`precision` |
It may be used to specify the number of significant digits for the coordinates in the GeoJSON representation – the default value is 8. |

`AsGML`

¶

*Availability*: Oracle, PostGIS,
SpatiaLite

Accepts a single geographic field or expression and returns a Geographic Markup Language (GML) representation of the geometry.

Example:

```
>>> qs = Zipcode.objects.annotate(gml=AsGML('poly'))
>>> print(qs[0].gml)
<gml:Polygon srsName="EPSG:4326"><gml:OuterBoundaryIs>-147.78711,70.245363 ...
-147.78711,70.245363</gml:OuterBoundaryIs></gml:Polygon>
```

Keyword Argument | Description |
---|---|

`precision` |
Specifies the number of significant digits for the coordinates in the GML representation – the default value is 8. Ignored on Oracle. |

`version` |
Specifies the GML version to use: 2 (default) or 3. |

Oracle support was added.

`AsKML`

¶

*Availability*: PostGIS, SpatiaLite

Accepts a single geographic field or expression and returns a Keyhole Markup Language (KML) representation of the geometry.

Example:

```
>>> qs = Zipcode.objects.annotate(kml=AsKML('poly'))
>>> print(qs[0].kml)
<Polygon><outerBoundaryIs><LinearRing><coordinates>-103.04135,36.217596,0 ...
-103.04135,36.217596,0</coordinates></LinearRing></outerBoundaryIs></Polygon>
```

Keyword Argument | Description |
---|---|

`precision` |
This keyword may be used to specify the number of significant digits for the coordinates in the KML representation – the default value is 8. |

`AsSVG`

¶

*Availability*: PostGIS, SpatiaLite

Accepts a single geographic field or expression and returns a Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) representation of the geometry.

Keyword Argument | Description |
---|---|

`relative` |
If set to `True` , the path data will be implemented
in terms of relative moves. Defaults to `False` ,
meaning that absolute moves are used instead. |

`precision` |
This keyword may be used to specify the number of significant digits for the coordinates in the SVG representation – the default value is 8. |

`BoundingCircle`

¶

Accepts a single geographic field or expression and returns the smallest circle polygon that can fully contain the geometry.

The `num_seg`

parameter is used only on PostGIS.

Oracle support was added.

`Centroid`

¶

*Availability*: MySQL, PostGIS,
Oracle, SpatiaLite

Accepts a single geographic field or expression and returns the `centroid`

value of the geometry.

`Difference`

¶

*Availability*: MySQL (≥ 5.6.1), PostGIS, Oracle, SpatiaLite

Accepts two geographic fields or expressions and returns the geometric difference, that is the part of geometry A that does not intersect with geometry B.

`Distance`

¶

*Availability*: MySQL (≥ 5.6.1), PostGIS, Oracle, SpatiaLite

Accepts two geographic fields or expressions and returns the distance between
them, as a `Distance`

object. On MySQL, a raw
float value is returned when the coordinates are geodetic.

On backends that support distance calculation on geodetic coordinates, the proper backend function is automatically chosen depending on the SRID value of the geometries (e.g. ST_DistanceSphere on PostGIS).

When distances are calculated with geodetic (angular) coordinates, as is the
case with the default WGS84 (4326) SRID, you can set the `spheroid`

keyword
argument to decide if the calculation should be based on a simple sphere (less
accurate, less resource-intensive) or on a spheroid (more accurate, more
resource-intensive).

In the following example, the distance from the city of Hobart to every other
`PointField`

in the `AustraliaCity`

queryset is calculated:

```
>>> from django.contrib.gis.db.models.functions import Distance
>>> pnt = AustraliaCity.objects.get(name='Hobart').point
>>> for city in AustraliaCity.objects.annotate(distance=Distance('point', pnt)):
... print(city.name, city.distance)
Wollongong 990071.220408 m
Shellharbour 972804.613941 m
Thirroul 1002334.36351 m
...
```

Note

Because the `distance`

attribute is a
`Distance`

object, you can easily express
the value in the units of your choice. For example, `city.distance.mi`

is
the distance value in miles and `city.distance.km`

is the distance value
in kilometers. See Measurement Objects for usage details and the list of
Supported units.

In older versions, a raw value was returned on MySQL when used on projected SRS.

`Envelope`

¶

*Availability*: MySQL, PostGIS,
SpatiaLite

Accepts a single geographic field or expression and returns the geometry representing the bounding box of the geometry.

`ForceRHR`

¶

*Availability*: PostGIS

Accepts a single geographic field or expression and returns a modified version of the polygon/multipolygon in which all of the vertices follow the right-hand rule.

`GeoHash`

¶

*Availability*: PostGIS,
SpatiaLite (LWGEOM)

Accepts a single geographic field or expression and returns a GeoHash representation of the geometry.

The `precision`

keyword argument controls the number of characters in the
result.

`Intersection`

¶

*Availability*: MySQL (≥ 5.6.1), PostGIS, Oracle, SpatiaLite

Accepts two geographic fields or expressions and returns the geometric intersection between them.

`IsValid`

¶

*Availability*: PostGIS,
Oracle, SpatiaLite (LWGEOM)

Accepts a geographic field or expression and tests if the value is well formed.
Returns `True`

if its value is a valid geometry and `False`

otherwise.

SpatiaLite and Oracle support was added.

`Length`

¶

*Availability*: MySQL, Oracle, PostGIS, SpatiaLite

Accepts a single geographic linestring or multilinestring field or expression
and returns its length as an `Distance`

measure. On MySQL, a raw float value is returned when the coordinates
are geodetic.

On PostGIS and SpatiaLite, when the coordinates are geodetic (angular), you can
specify if the calculation should be based on a simple sphere (less
accurate, less resource-intensive) or on a spheroid (more accurate, more
resource-intensive) with the `spheroid`

keyword argument.

In older versions, a raw value was returned on MySQL when used on projected SRS.

`MakeValid`

¶

*Availability*: PostGIS,
SpatiaLite (LWGEOM)

Accepts a geographic field or expression and attempts to convert the value into a valid geometry without losing any of the input vertices. Geometries that are already valid are returned without changes. Simple polygons might become a multipolygon and the result might be of lower dimension than the input.

SpatiaLite support was added.

`MemSize`

¶

*Availability*: PostGIS

Accepts a single geographic field or expression and returns the memory size (number of bytes) that the geometry field takes.

`NumGeometries`

¶

*Availability*: MySQL, PostGIS, Oracle, SpatiaLite

Accepts a single geographic field or expression and returns the number of
geometries if the geometry field is a collection (e.g., a `GEOMETRYCOLLECTION`

or `MULTI*`

field). Returns 1 for single geometries.

On MySQL, returns `None`

for single geometries.

`NumPoints`

¶

*Availability*: MySQL, PostGIS,
Oracle, SpatiaLite

Accepts a single geographic field or expression and returns the number of points in a geometry.

On MySQL, returns `None`

for any non-`LINESTRING`

geometry.

SpatiaLite support for non-`LINESTRING`

geometries was added.

`Perimeter`

¶

*Availability*: PostGIS,
Oracle, SpatiaLite

Accepts a single geographic field or expression and returns the perimeter of the
geometry field as a `Distance`

object.

`PointOnSurface`

¶

*Availability*: PostGIS,
Oracle, SpatiaLite

Accepts a single geographic field or expression and returns a `Point`

geometry
guaranteed to lie on the surface of the field; otherwise returns `None`

.

`Reverse`

¶

*Availability*: PostGIS, Oracle,
SpatiaLite

Accepts a single geographic field or expression and returns a geometry with reversed coordinates.

`Scale`

¶

*Availability*: PostGIS, SpatiaLite

Accepts a single geographic field or expression and returns a geometry with
scaled coordinates by multiplying them with the `x`

, `y`

, and optionally
`z`

parameters.

`SnapToGrid`

¶

*Availability*: PostGIS,
SpatiaLite

Accepts a single geographic field or expression and returns a geometry with all points snapped to the given grid. How the geometry is snapped to the grid depends on how many numeric (either float, integer, or long) arguments are given.

Number of Arguments | Description |
---|---|

1 | A single size to snap both the X and Y grids to. |

2 | X and Y sizes to snap the grid to. |

4 | X, Y sizes and the corresponding X, Y origins. |

`SymDifference`

¶

*Availability*: MySQL (≥ 5.6.1), PostGIS, Oracle, SpatiaLite

Accepts two geographic fields or expressions and returns the geometric symmetric difference (union without the intersection) between the given parameters.

`Transform`

¶

*Availability*: PostGIS,
Oracle, SpatiaLite

Accepts a geographic field or expression and a SRID integer code, and returns
the transformed geometry to the spatial reference system specified by the
`srid`

parameter.

Note

What spatial reference system an integer SRID corresponds to may depend on the spatial database used. In other words, the SRID numbers used for Oracle are not necessarily the same as those used by PostGIS.