How is Django Formed?¶
This document explains how to release Django.
Please, keep these instructions up-to-date if you make changes! The point here is to be descriptive, not prescriptive, so feel free to streamline or otherwise make changes, but update this document accordingly!
There are three types of releases that you might need to make:
- Security releases: disclosing and fixing a vulnerability. This’ll generally involve two or three simultaneous releases – e.g. 1.5.x, 1.6.x, and, depending on timing, perhaps a 1.7 alpha/beta/rc.
- Regular version releases: either a final release (e.g. 1.5) or a bugfix update (e.g. 1.5.1).
- Pre-releases: e.g. 1.6 alpha, beta, or rc.
The short version of the steps involved is:
- If this is a security release, pre-notify the security distribution list one week before the actual release.
- Proofread the release notes, looking for organization and writing errors. Draft a blog post and email announcement.
- Update version numbers and create the release package(s).
- Upload the package(s) to the
- Upload the new version(s) to PyPI.
- Declare the new version in the admin on
- Post the blog entry and send out the email announcements.
- Update version numbers post-release.
There are a lot of details, so please read on.
You’ll need a few things before getting started:
A GPG key. If the key you want to use is not your default signing key, you’ll need to add
-u email@example.com every GPG signing command below, where
firstname.lastname@example.org the email address associated with the key you want to use.
An install of some required Python packages:
$ python -m pip install wheel twine
Access to Django’s record on PyPI. Create a file with your credentials:
[pypi] username:YourUsername password:YourPassword
Access to the
djangoproject.comserver to upload files.
Access to the admin on
djangoproject.comas a “Site maintainer”.
Access to post to
If this is a security release, access to the pre-notification distribution list.
If this is your first release, you’ll need to coordinate with another releaser to get all these things lined up.
A few items need to be taken care of before even beginning the release process. This stuff starts about a week before the release; most of it can be done any time leading up to the actual release:
If this is a security release, send out pre-notification one week before the release. The template for that email and a list of the recipients are in the private
django-securityGitHub wiki. BCC the pre-notification recipients. Sign the email with the key you’ll use for the release and include CVE IDs (requested with Vendor: djangoproject, Product: django) and patches for each issue being fixed. Also, notify django-announce of the upcoming security release.
As the release approaches, watch Trac to make sure no release blockers are left for the upcoming release.
Check with the other committers to make sure they don’t have any uncommitted changes for the release.
Proofread the release notes, including looking at the online version to catch any broken links or reST errors, and make sure the release notes contain the correct date.
Double-check that the release notes mention deprecation timelines for any APIs noted as deprecated, and that they mention any changes in Python version support.
Double-check that the release notes index has a link to the notes for the new release; this will be in
If this is a feature release, ensure translations from Transifex have been integrated. This is typically done by a separate translation’s manager rather than the releaser, but here are the steps. Provided you have an account on Transifex:
$ python scripts/manage_translations.py fetch
and then commit the changed/added files (both .po and .mo). Sometimes there are validation errors which need to be debugged, so avoid doing this task immediately before a release is needed.
$ cd docs $ make man $ man _build/man/django-admin.1 # do a quick sanity check $ cp _build/man/django-admin.1 man/django-admin.1
and then commit the changed man page.
If this is the alpha release of a new series, create a new stable branch from master. For example, when releasing Django 3.1:
$ git checkout -b stable/3.1.x origin/master $ git push origin -u stable/3.1.x:stable/3.1.x
If this is the “dot zero” release of a new series, create a new branch from the current stable branch in the django-docs-translations repository. For example, when releasing Django 2.2:
$ git checkout -b stable/2.2.x origin/stable/2.1.x $ git push origin stable/2.2.x:stable/2.2.x
Preparing for release¶
Write the announcement blog post for the release. You can enter it into the admin at any time and mark it as inactive. Here are a few examples: example security release announcement, example regular release announcement, example pre-release announcement.
Actually rolling the release¶
OK, this is the fun part, where we actually push out a release!
Check Jenkins is green for the version(s) you’re putting out. You probably shouldn’t issue a release until it’s green.
A release always begins from a release branch, so you should make sure you’re on a stable branch and up-to-date. For example:
$ git checkout stable/1.5.x $ git pull
If this is a security release, merge the appropriate patches from
django-security. Rebase these patches as necessary to make each one a plain commit on the release branch rather than a merge commit. To ensure this, merge them with the
--ff-onlyflag; for example:
$ git checkout stable/1.5.x $ git merge --ff-only security/1.5.x
security/1.5.xis a branch in the
django-securityrepo containing the necessary security patches for the next release in the 1.5 series.)
If git refuses to merge with
--ff-only, switch to the security-patch branch and rebase it on the branch you are about to merge it into (
git checkout security/1.5.x; git rebase stable/1.5.x) and then switch back and do the merge. Make sure the commit message for each security fix explains that the commit is a security fix and that an announcement will follow (example security commit).
For a feature release, remove the
UNDER DEVELOPMENTheader at the top of the release notes and add the release date on the next line. For a patch release, replace
*Under Development*with the release date. Make this change on all branches where the release notes for a particular version are located.
Update the version number in
django/__init__.pyfor the release. Please see notes on setting the VERSION tuple below for details on
If this is a pre-release package, update the “Development Status” trove classifier in
setup.cfgto reflect this. Otherwise, make sure the classifier is set to
Development Status :: 5 - Production/Stable.
Tag the release using
git tag. For example:
$ git tag --sign --message="Tag 1.5.1" 1.5.1
You can check your work by running
git tag --verify <tag>.
Push your work, including the tag:
git push --tags.
Make sure you have an absolutely clean tree by running
git clean -dfx.
make -f extras/Makefileto generate the release packages. This will create the release packages in a
Generate the hashes of the release packages:
$ cd dist $ md5sum * $ sha1sum * $ sha256sum *
Create a “checksums” file,
Django-<<VERSION>>.checksum.txtcontaining the hashes and release information. Start with this template and insert the correct version, date, GPG key ID (from
gpg --list-keys --keyid-format LONG), release URL, and checksums:
This file contains MD5, SHA1, and SHA256 checksums for the source-code tarball and wheel files of Django <<VERSION>>, released <<DATE>>. To use this file, you will need a working install of PGP or other compatible public-key encryption software. You will also need to have the Django release manager's public key in your keyring; this key has the ID ``XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX`` and can be imported from the MIT keyserver. For example, if using the open-source GNU Privacy Guard implementation of PGP: gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-key XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Once the key is imported, verify this file:: gpg --verify <<THIS FILENAME>> Once you have verified this file, you can use normal MD5, SHA1, or SHA256 checksumming applications to generate the checksums of the Django package and compare them to the checksums listed below. Release packages: ================= https://www.djangoproject.com/m/releases/<<RELEASE TAR.GZ FILENAME>> https://www.djangoproject.com/m/releases/<<RELEASE WHL FILENAME>> MD5 checksums: ============== <<MD5SUM>> <<RELEASE TAR.GZ FILENAME>> <<MD5SUM>> <<RELEASE WHL FILENAME>> SHA1 checksums: =============== <<SHA1SUM>> <<RELEASE TAR.GZ FILENAME>> <<SHA1SUM>> <<RELEASE WHL FILENAME>> SHA256 checksums: ================= <<SHA256SUM>> <<RELEASE TAR.GZ FILENAME>> <<SHA256SUM>> <<RELEASE WHL FILENAME>>
Sign the checksum file (
gpg --clearsign --digest-algo SHA256 Django-<version>.checksum.txt). This generates a signed document,
Django-<version>.checksum.txt.ascwhich you can then verify using
gpg --verify Django-<version>.checksum.txt.asc.
If you’re issuing multiple releases, repeat these steps for each release.
Making the release(s) available to the public¶
Now you’re ready to actually put the release out there. To do this:
Upload the release package(s) to the djangoproject server, replacing A.B. with the appropriate version number, e.g. 1.5 for a 1.5.x release:
$ scp Django-* djangoproject.com:/home/www/www/media/releases/A.B
If this is the alpha release of a new series, you will need to create the directory A.B.
Upload the checksum file(s):
$ scp Django-A.B.C.checksum.txt.asc djangoproject.com:/home/www/www/media/pgp/Django-A.B.C.checksum.txt
Test that the release packages install correctly using
pip. Here’s one method (which requires virtualenvwrapper):
$ RELEASE_VERSION='1.7.2' $ MAJOR_VERSION=`echo $RELEASE_VERSION| cut -c 1-3` $ mktmpenv $ easy_install https://www.djangoproject.com/m/releases/$MAJOR_VERSION/Django-$RELEASE_VERSION.tar.gz $ deactivate $ mktmpenv $ python -m pip install https://www.djangoproject.com/m/releases/$MAJOR_VERSION/Django-$RELEASE_VERSION.tar.gz $ deactivate $ mktmpenv $ python -m pip install https://www.djangoproject.com/m/releases/$MAJOR_VERSION/Django-$RELEASE_VERSION-py3-none-any.whl $ deactivate
This just tests that the tarballs are available (i.e. redirects are up) and that they install correctly, but it’ll catch silly mistakes.
Ask a few people on IRC to verify the checksums by visiting the checksums file (e.g. https://www.djangoproject.com/m/pgp/Django-1.5b1.checksum.txt) and following the instructions in it. For bonus points, they can also unpack the downloaded release tarball and verify that its contents appear to be correct (proper version numbers, no stray
.pycor other undesirable files).
Upload the release packages to PyPI (for pre-releases, only upload the wheel file):
$ twine upload -s dist/*
Go to the Add release page in the admin, enter the new release number exactly as it appears in the name of the tarball (Django-<version>.tar.gz). So for example enter “1.5.1” or “1.4c2”, etc. If the release is part of an LTS branch, mark it so.
If this is the alpha release of a new series, also create a Release object for the final release, ensuring that the Release date field is blank, thus marking it as unreleased. For example, when creating the Release object for
3.1a1, also create
3.1with the Release date field blank.
Make the blog post announcing the release live.
For a new version release (e.g. 1.5, 1.6), update the default stable version of the docs by flipping the
Trueon the appropriate
DocumentReleaseobject in the
docs.djangoproject.comdatabase (this will automatically flip it to
Falsefor all others); you can do this using the site’s admin.
DocumentReleaseobjects for each language that has an entry for the previous release. Update djangoproject.com’s robots.docs.txt file by copying entries from
manage_translations.py robots_txtfrom the current stable branch in the
django-docs-translationsrepository. For example, when releasing Django 2.2:
$ git checkout stable/2.2.x $ git pull $ python manage_translations.py robots_txt
If this is a security release, send a separate email to email@example.com. Provide a descriptive subject, for example, “Django” plus the issue title from the release notes (including CVE ID). The message body should include the vulnerability details, for example, the announcement blog post text. Include a link to the announcement blog post.
Add a link to the blog post in the topic of the #django IRC channel:
/msg chanserv TOPIC #django new topic goes here.
You’re almost done! All that’s left to do now is:
- Update the
django/__init__.pyagain, incrementing to whatever the next expected release will be. For example, after releasing 1.5.1, update
VERSION = (1, 5, 2, 'alpha', 0).
- Add the release in Trac’s versions list if necessary (and make it the
default by changing the
default_versionsetting in the code.djangoproject.com’s trac.ini, if it’s a final release). The new X.Y version should be added after the alpha release and the default version should be updated after “dot zero” release.
- If this was a security release, update Archive of security issues with details of the issues addressed.
New stable branch tasks¶
There are several items to do in the time following the creation of a new stable branch (often following an alpha release). Some of these tasks don’t need to be done by the releaser.
- Create a new
DocumentReleaseobject in the
docs.djangoproject.comdatabase for the new version’s docs, and update the
docs/fixtures/doc_releases.jsonJSON fixture, so people without access to the production DB can still run an up-to-date copy of the docs site.
- Create a stub release note for the new feature version. Use the stub from the previous feature release version or copy the contents from the previous feature version and delete most of the contents leaving only the headings.
- Increase the default PBKDF2 iterations in
django.contrib.auth.hashers.PBKDF2PasswordHasherby about 20% (pick a round number). Run the tests, and update the 3 failing hasher tests with the new values. Make sure this gets noted in the release notes (see the 1.8 release notes for an example).
- Remove features that have reached the end of their deprecation cycle. Each removal should be done in a separate commit for clarity. In the commit message, add a “refs #XXXX” to the original ticket where the deprecation began if possible.
.. versionadded::, and
.. deprecated::annotations in the documentation from two releases ago. For example, in Django 1.9, notes for 1.7 will be removed.
- Add the new branch to Read the Docs. Since the automatically generated version names (“stable-A.B.x”) differ from the version names used in Read the Docs (“A.B.x”), create a ticket requesting the new version.
Notes on setting the VERSION tuple¶
Django’s version reporting is controlled by the
VERSION tuple in
django/__init__.py. This is a five-element tuple, whose elements
- Major version.
- Minor version.
- Micro version.
- Status – can be one of “alpha”, “beta”, “rc” or “final”.
- Series number, for alpha/beta/RC packages which run in sequence (allowing, for example, “beta 1”, “beta 2”, etc.).
For a final release, the status is always “final” and the series number is always 0. A series number of 0 with an “alpha” status will be reported as “pre-alpha”.
(1, 2, 1, 'final', 0)→ “1.2.1”
(1, 3, 0, 'alpha', 0)→ “1.3 pre-alpha”
(1, 3, 0, 'beta', 2)→ “1.3 beta 2”