Database migration operations

All of these operations are available from the django.contrib.postgres.operations module.

Creating extension using migrations

You can create a PostgreSQL extension in your database using a migration file. This example creates an hstore extension, but the same principles apply for other extensions.

Set up the hstore extension in PostgreSQL before the first CreateModel or AddField operation that involves HStoreField by adding a migration with the HStoreExtension operation. For example:

from django.contrib.postgres.operations import HStoreExtension

class Migration(migrations.Migration):

    operations = [

Creating the extension requires a database user with superuser privileges. If the Django database user doesn’t have superuser privileges, you’ll have to create the extension outside of Django migrations with a user that has the appropriate privileges. In that case, connect to your Django database and run the query CREATE EXTENSION IF NOT EXISTS hstore;.


class CreateExtension(name)

An Operation subclass which installs PostgreSQL extensions.


This is a required argument. The name of the extension to be installed.


class BtreeGinExtension

Install the btree_gin extension.


class BtreeGistExtension

Install the btree_gist extension.


class CITextExtension

Installs the citext extension.


class CryptoExtension

Installs the pgcrypto extension.


class HStoreExtension

Installs the hstore extension and also sets up the connection to interpret hstore data for possible use in subsequent migrations.


class TrigramExtension

Installs the pg_trgm extension.


class UnaccentExtension

Installs the unaccent extension.

Index concurrent operations

New in Django 3.0.

PostgreSQL supports the CONCURRENTLY option to CREATE INDEX and DROP INDEX statements to add and remove indexes without locking out writes. This option is useful for adding or removing an index in a live production database.

class AddIndexConcurrently(model_name, index)

Like AddIndex, but creates an index with the CONCURRENTLY option. This has a few caveats to be aware of when using this option, see the PostgreSQL documentation of building indexes concurrently.

class RemoveIndexConcurrently(model_name, name)

Like RemoveIndex, but removes the index with the CONCURRENTLY option. This has a few caveats to be aware of when using this option, see the PostgreSQL documentation.


The CONCURRENTLY option is not supported inside a transaction (see non-atomic migration).

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