A validator is a callable that takes a value and raises a ValidationError if it doesn’t meet some criteria. Validators can be useful for re-using validation logic between different types of fields.
For example, here’s a validator that only allows even numbers:
from django.core.exceptions import ValidationError def validate_even(value): if value % 2 != 0: raise ValidationError('%s is not an even number' % value)
You can add this to a model field via the field’s validators argument:
from django.db import models class MyModel(models.Model): even_field = models.IntegerField(validators=[validate_even])
Because values are converted to Python before validators are run, you can even use the same validator with forms:
from django import forms class MyForm(forms.Form): even_field = forms.IntegerField(validators=[validate_even])
You can also use a class with a __call__() method for more complex or configurable validators. RegexValidator, for example, uses this technique. If a class-based validator is used in the validators model field option, you should make sure it is serializable by the migration framework by adding deconstruct() and __eq__() methods.
How validators are run¶
See the form validation for more information on how validators are run in forms, and Validating objects for how they’re run in models. Note that validators will not be run automatically when you save a model, but if you are using a ModelForm, it will run your validators on any fields that are included in your form. See the ModelForm documentation for information on how model validation interacts with forms.
The django.core.validators module contains a collection of callable validators for use with model and form fields. They’re used internally but are available for use with your own fields, too. They can be used in addition to, or in lieu of custom field.clean() methods.
- class RegexValidator([regex=None, message=None, code=None, inverse_match=None, flags=0])¶
- regex – If not None, overrides regex. Can be a regular expression string or a pre-compiled regular expression.
- message – If not None, overrides message.
- code – If not None, overrides code.
- inverse_match – If not None, overrides inverse_match.
- flags – If not None, overrides flags. In that case, regex must be a regular expression string, or TypeError is raised.
The regular expression pattern to search for the provided value, or a pre-compiled regular expression. By default, raises a ValidationError with message and code if a match is not found. That standard behavior can be reversed by setting inverse_match to True, in which case the ValidationError is raised when a match is found. By default, matches any string (including an empty string).
The error message used by ValidationError if validation fails. Defaults to "Enter a valid value".
- class EmailValidator([message=None, code=None, whitelist=None])¶
The error message used by ValidationError if validation fails. Defaults to "Enter a valid email address".
Whitelist of email domains to allow. By default, a regular expression (the domain_regex attribute) is used to validate whatever appears after the @ sign. However, if that string appears in the whitelist, this validation is bypassed. If not provided, the default whitelist is ['localhost']. Other domains that don’t contain a dot won’t pass validation, so you’d need to whitelist them as necessary.
- class URLValidator([schemes=None, regex=None, message=None, code=None])¶
A RegexValidator that ensures a value looks like a URL, and raises an error code of 'invalid' if it doesn’t.
Loopback addresses and reserved IP spaces are considered valid. Literal IPv6 addresses (RFC 2732) and unicode domains are both supported.
In addition to the optional arguments of its parent RegexValidator class, URLValidator accepts an extra optional attribute:
Changed in Django 1.7:
URL/URI scheme list to validate against. If not provided, the default list is ['http', 'https', 'ftp', 'ftps']. As a reference, the IANA Web site provides a full list of valid URI schemes.
The optional schemes attribute was added.Changed in Django 1.8:
Support for IPv6 addresses, unicode domains, and URLs containing authentication data was added.
Uses django.utils.ipv6 to check the validity of an IPv6 address.
Uses both validate_ipv4_address and validate_ipv6_address to ensure a value is either a valid IPv4 or IPv6 address.