- Language: en
Django includes a “signal dispatcher” which helps decoupled applications get notified when actions occur elsewhere in the framework. In a nutshell, signals allow certain senders to notify a set of receivers that some action has taken place. They’re especially useful when many pieces of code may be interested in the same events.
For example, a third-party app can register to be notified of settings changes:
from django.apps import AppConfig from django.core.signals import setting_changed def my_callback(sender, **kwargs): print("Setting changed!") class MyAppConfig(AppConfig): ... def ready(self): setting_changed.connect(my_callback)
Django’s built-in signals let user code get notified of certain actions.
You can also define and send your own custom signals. See Defining and sending signals below.
Signals give the appearance of loose coupling, but they can quickly lead to code that is hard to understand, adjust and debug.
Where possible you should opt for directly calling the handling code, rather than dispatching via a signal.
Listening to signals¶
To receive a signal, register a receiver function using the
Signal.connect() method. The receiver function is called when the signal
is sent. All of the signal’s receiver functions are called one at a time, in
the order they were registered.
connect(receiver, sender=None, weak=True, dispatch_uid=None)¶
- receiver – The callback function which will be connected to this signal. See Receiver functions for more information.
- sender – Specifies a particular sender to receive signals from. See Connecting to signals sent by specific senders for more information.
- weak – Django stores signal handlers as weak references by
default. Thus, if your receiver is a local function, it may be
garbage collected. To prevent this, pass
weak=Falsewhen you call the signal’s
- dispatch_uid – A unique identifier for a signal receiver in cases where duplicate signals may be sent. See Preventing duplicate signals for more information.
Let’s see how this works by registering a signal that
gets called after each HTTP request is finished. We’ll be connecting to the
First, we need to define a receiver function. A receiver can be any Python function or method:
def my_callback(sender, **kwargs): print("Request finished!")
Notice that the function takes a
sender argument, along with wildcard
keyword arguments (
**kwargs); all signal handlers must take these arguments.
We’ll look at senders a bit later, but
right now look at the
**kwargs argument. All signals send keyword
arguments, and may change those keyword arguments at any time. In the case of
request_finished, it’s documented as sending no
arguments, which means we might be tempted to write our signal handling as
This would be wrong – in fact, Django will throw an error if you do so. That’s because at any point arguments could get added to the signal and your receiver must be able to handle those new arguments.
Receivers may also be asynchronous functions, with the same signature but
async def my_callback(sender, **kwargs): await asyncio.sleep(5) print("Request finished!")
Signals can be sent either synchronously or asynchronously, and receivers will automatically be adapted to the correct call-style. See sending signals for more information.
Support for asynchronous receivers was added.
Connecting receiver functions¶
There are two ways you can connect a receiver to a signal. You can take the manual connect route:
from django.core.signals import request_finished request_finished.connect(my_callback)
Alternatively, you can use a
- signal – A signal or a list of signals to connect a function to.
- kwargs – Wildcard keyword arguments to pass to a function.
Here’s how you connect with the decorator:
from django.core.signals import request_finished from django.dispatch import receiver @receiver(request_finished) def my_callback(sender, **kwargs): print("Request finished!")
my_callback function will be called each time a request finishes.
Where should this code live?
Strictly speaking, signal handling and registration code can live anywhere
you like, although it’s recommended to avoid the application’s root module
models module to minimize side-effects of importing code.
In practice, signal handlers are usually defined in a
submodule of the application they relate to. Signal receivers are
connected in the
ready() method of your
application configuration class. If
you’re using the
receiver() decorator, import the
ready(), this will implicitly
connect signal handlers:
from django.apps import AppConfig from django.core.signals import request_finished class MyAppConfig(AppConfig): ... def ready(self): # Implicitly connect signal handlers decorated with @receiver. from . import signals # Explicitly connect a signal handler. request_finished.connect(signals.my_callback)
ready() method may be executed more than
once during testing, so you may want to guard your signals from
duplication, especially if you’re planning
to send them within tests.
Connecting to signals sent by specific senders¶
Some signals get sent many times, but you’ll only be interested in receiving a
certain subset of those signals. For example, consider the
django.db.models.signals.pre_save signal sent before a model gets saved.
Most of the time, you don’t need to know when any model gets saved – just
when one specific model is saved.
In these cases, you can register to receive signals sent only by particular
senders. In the case of
django.db.models.signals.pre_save, the sender
will be the model class being saved, so you can indicate that you only want
signals sent by some model:
from django.db.models.signals import pre_save from django.dispatch import receiver from myapp.models import MyModel @receiver(pre_save, sender=MyModel) def my_handler(sender, **kwargs): ...
my_handler function will only be called when an instance of
Different signals use different objects as their senders; you’ll need to consult the built-in signal documentation for details of each particular signal.
Preventing duplicate signals¶
In some circumstances, the code connecting receivers to signals may run
multiple times. This can cause your receiver function to be registered more
than once, and thus called as many times for a signal event. For example, the
ready() method may be executed more than once
during testing. More generally, this occurs everywhere your project imports the
module where you define the signals, because signal registration runs as many
times as it is imported.
If this behavior is problematic (such as when using signals to
send an email whenever a model is saved), pass a unique identifier as
dispatch_uid argument to identify your receiver function. This
identifier will usually be a string, although any hashable object will
suffice. The end result is that your receiver function will only be
bound to the signal once for each unique
from django.core.signals import request_finished request_finished.connect(my_callback, dispatch_uid="my_unique_identifier")
Defining and sending signals¶
Your applications can take advantage of the signal infrastructure and provide its own signals.
When to use custom signals
Signals are implicit function calls which make debugging harder. If the sender and receiver of your custom signal are both within your project, you’re better off using an explicit function call.
All signals are
import django.dispatch pizza_done = django.dispatch.Signal()
This declares a
There are two ways to send signals synchronously in Django.
Signals may also be sent asynchronously.
To send a signal, call either
await Signal.asend(), or
await Signal.asend_robust(). You must provide the
sender argument (which is a class most of the time) and may provide as many
other keyword arguments as you like.
For example, here’s how sending our
pizza_done signal might look:
class PizzaStore: ... def send_pizza(self, toppings, size): pizza_done.send(sender=self.__class__, toppings=toppings, size=size) ...
All four methods return a list of tuple pairs
[(receiver, response), ...],
representing the list of called receiver functions and their response values.
send() differs from
send_robust() in how exceptions raised by receiver
functions are handled.
send() does not catch any exceptions raised by
receivers; it simply allows errors to propagate. Thus not all receivers may
be notified of a signal in the face of an error.
send_robust() catches all errors derived from Python’s
and ensures all receivers are notified of the signal. If an error occurs, the
error instance is returned in the tuple pair for the receiver that raised the error.
The tracebacks are present on the
__traceback__ attribute of the errors
returned when calling
asend() is similar as
send(), but it is coroutine that must be
async def asend_pizza(self, toppings, size): await pizza_done.asend(sender=self.__class__, toppings=toppings, size=size) ...
Whether synchronous or asynchronous, receivers will be correctly adapted to
asend() is used. Synchronous receivers will be
sync_to_async() when invoked via
receivers will be called using
async_to_sync() when invoked via
sync(). Similar to the case for middleware,
there is a small performance cost to adapting receivers in this way. Note that
in order to reduce the number of sync/async calling-style switches within a
asend() call, the receivers are grouped by whether or not
they are async before being called. This means that an asynchronous receiver
registered before a synchronous receiver may be executed after the synchronous
receiver. In addition, async receivers are executed concurrently using
All built-in signals, except those in the async request-response cycle, are
Support for asynchronous signals was added.
disconnect(receiver=None, sender=None, dispatch_uid=None)¶
To disconnect a receiver from a signal, call
arguments are as described in
Signal.connect(). The method returns
True if a receiver was disconnected and
False if not. When
is passed as a lazy reference to
<app label>.<model>, this method always
receiver argument indicates the registered receiver to disconnect. It
dispatch_uid is used to identify the receiver.