Django documentation

The staticfiles app

django.contrib.staticfiles collects static files from each of your applications (and any other places you specify) into a single location that can easily be served in production.

See also

For an introduction to the static files app and some usage examples, see Managing static files (CSS, images). For guidelines on deploying static files, see Deploying static files.

Management Commands

django.contrib.staticfiles exposes three management commands.

collectstatic

django-admin.py collectstatic

Collects the static files into STATIC_ROOT.

Duplicate file names are by default resolved in a similar way to how template resolution works: the file that is first found in one of the specified locations will be used. If you’re confused, the findstatic command can help show you which files are found.

Files are searched by using the enabled finders. The default is to look in all locations defined in STATICFILES_DIRS and in the 'static' directory of apps specified by the INSTALLED_APPS setting.

The collectstatic management command calls the post_process() method of the STATICFILES_STORAGE after each run and passes a list of paths that have been found by the management command. It also receives all command line options of collectstatic. This is used by the CachedStaticFilesStorage by default.

By default, collected files receive permissions from FILE_UPLOAD_PERMISSIONS and collected directories receive permissions from FILE_UPLOAD_DIRECTORY_PERMISSIONS. If you would like different permissions for these files and/or directories, you can subclass either of the static files storage classes and specify the file_permissions_mode and/or directory_permissions_mode parameters, respectively. For example:

from django.contrib.staticfiles import storage

class MyStaticFilesStorage(storage.StaticFilesStorage):
    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        kwargs['file_permissions_mode'] = 0o640
        kwargs['directory_permissions_mode'] = 0o760
        super(CustomStaticFilesStorage, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)

Then set the STATICFILES_STORAGE setting to 'path.to.MyStaticFilesStorage'.

New in Django 1.7:

The ability to override file_permissions_mode and directory_permissions_mode is new in Django 1.7. Previously the file permissions always used FILE_UPLOAD_PERMISSIONS and the directory permissions always used FILE_UPLOAD_DIRECTORY_PERMISSIONS.

Some commonly used options are:

--noinput

Do NOT prompt the user for input of any kind.

-i <pattern>
--ignore <pattern>

Ignore files or directories matching this glob-style pattern. Use multiple times to ignore more.

-n
--dry-run

Do everything except modify the filesystem.

-c
--clear

Clear the existing files before trying to copy or link the original file.

-l

Create a symbolic link to each file instead of copying.

--no-post-process

Don’t call the post_process() method of the configured STATICFILES_STORAGE storage backend.

--no-default-ignore

Don’t ignore the common private glob-style patterns 'CVS', '.*' and '*~'.

For a full list of options, refer to the commands own help by running:

$ python manage.py collectstatic --help

findstatic

django-admin.py findstatic

Searches for one or more relative paths with the enabled finders.

For example:

$ python manage.py findstatic css/base.css admin/js/core.js
Found 'css/base.css' here:
  /home/special.polls.com/core/static/css/base.css
  /home/polls.com/core/static/css/base.css
Found 'admin/js/core.js' here:
  /home/polls.com/src/django/contrib/admin/media/js/core.js

By default, all matching locations are found. To only return the first match for each relative path, use the --first option:

$ python manage.py findstatic css/base.css --first
Found 'css/base.css' here:
  /home/special.polls.com/core/static/css/base.css

This is a debugging aid; it’ll show you exactly which static file will be collected for a given path.

By setting the --verbosity flag to 0, you can suppress the extra output and just get the path names:

$ python manage.py findstatic css/base.css --verbosity 0
/home/special.polls.com/core/static/css/base.css
/home/polls.com/core/static/css/base.css

On the other hand, by setting the --verbosity flag to 2, you can get all the directories which were searched:

$ python manage.py findstatic css/base.css --verbosity 2
Found 'css/base.css' here:
  /home/special.polls.com/core/static/css/base.css
  /home/polls.com/core/static/css/base.css
Looking in the following locations:
  /home/special.polls.com/core/static
  /home/polls.com/core/static
  /some/other/path/static
New in Django 1.7:

The additional output of which directories were searched was added.

runserver

django-admin.py runserver

Overrides the core runserver command if the staticfiles app is installed and adds automatic serving of static files and the following new options.

--nostatic

Use the --nostatic option to disable serving of static files with the staticfiles app entirely. This option is only available if the staticfiles app is in your project’s INSTALLED_APPS setting.

Example usage:

django-admin.py runserver --nostatic
--insecure

Use the --insecure option to force serving of static files with the staticfiles app even if the DEBUG setting is False. By using this you acknowledge the fact that it’s grossly inefficient and probably insecure. This is only intended for local development, should never be used in production and is only available if the staticfiles app is in your project’s INSTALLED_APPS setting. runserver --insecure doesn’t work with CachedStaticFilesStorage.

Example usage:

django-admin.py runserver --insecure

Storages

StaticFilesStorage

class storage.StaticFilesStorage

A subclass of the FileSystemStorage storage backend that uses the STATIC_ROOT setting as the base file system location and the STATIC_URL setting respectively as the base URL.

storage.StaticFilesStorage.post_process(paths, **options)

This method is called by the collectstatic management command after each run and gets passed the local storages and paths of found files as a dictionary, as well as the command line options.

The CachedStaticFilesStorage uses this behind the scenes to replace the paths with their hashed counterparts and update the cache appropriately.

ManifestStaticFilesStorage

New in Django 1.7.
class storage.ManifestStaticFilesStorage

A subclass of the StaticFilesStorage storage backend which stores the file names it handles by appending the MD5 hash of the file’s content to the filename. For example, the file css/styles.css would also be saved as css/styles.55e7cbb9ba48.css.

The purpose of this storage is to keep serving the old files in case some pages still refer to those files, e.g. because they are cached by you or a 3rd party proxy server. Additionally, it’s very helpful if you want to apply far future Expires headers to the deployed files to speed up the load time for subsequent page visits.

The storage backend automatically replaces the paths found in the saved files matching other saved files with the path of the cached copy (using the post_process() method). The regular expressions used to find those paths (django.contrib.staticfiles.storage.HashedFilesMixin.patterns) by default covers the @import rule and url() statement of Cascading Style Sheets. For example, the 'css/styles.css' file with the content

@import url("../admin/css/base.css");

would be replaced by calling the url() method of the ManifestStaticFilesStorage storage backend, ultimately saving a 'css/styles.55e7cbb9ba48.css' file with the following content:

@import url("../admin/css/base.27e20196a850.css");

To enable the ManifestStaticFilesStorage you have to make sure the following requirements are met:

  • the STATICFILES_STORAGE setting is set to 'django.contrib.staticfiles.storage.ManifestStaticFilesStorage'
  • the DEBUG setting is set to False
  • you use the staticfiles static template tag to refer to your static files in your templates
  • you’ve collected all your static files by using the collectstatic management command

Since creating the MD5 hash can be a performance burden to your website during runtime, staticfiles will automatically store the mapping with hashed names for all processed files in a file called staticfiles.json. This happens once when you run the collectstatic management command.

storage.ManifestStaticFilesStorage.file_hash(name, content=None)

The method that is used when creating the hashed name of a file. Needs to return a hash for the given file name and content. By default it calculates a MD5 hash from the content’s chunks as mentioned above. Feel free to override this method to use your own hashing algorithm.

CachedStaticFilesStorage

class storage.CachedStaticFilesStorage

CachedStaticFilesStorage is a similar class like the ManifestStaticFilesStorage class but uses Django’s caching framework for storing the hashed names of processed files instead of a static manifest file called staticfiles.json. This is mostly useful for situations in which you don’t have access to the file system.

If you want to override certain options of the cache backend the storage uses, simply specify a custom entry in the CACHES setting named 'staticfiles'. It falls back to using the 'default' cache backend.

Template tags

static

Uses the configured STATICFILES_STORAGE storage to create the full URL for the given relative path, e.g.:

{% load static from staticfiles %}
<img src="{% static "images/hi.jpg" %}" alt="Hi!" />

The previous example is equal to calling the url method of an instance of STATICFILES_STORAGE with "images/hi.jpg". This is especially useful when using a non-local storage backend to deploy files as documented in Serving static files from a cloud service or CDN.

If you’d like to retrieve a static URL without displaying it, you can use a slightly different call:

{% load static from staticfiles %}
{% static "images/hi.jpg" as myphoto %}
<img src="{{ myphoto }}" alt="Hi!" />

Finders Module

staticfiles finders has a searched_locations attribute which is a list of directory paths in which the finders searched. Example usage:

from django.contrib.staticfiles import finders

result = finders.find('css/base.css')
searched_locations = finders.searched_locations
New in Django 1.7.

The searched_locations attribute was added.

Other Helpers

There are a few other helpers outside of the staticfiles app to work with static files:

Static file development view

The static files tools are mostly designed to help with getting static files successfully deployed into production. This usually means a separate, dedicated static file server, which is a lot of overhead to mess with when developing locally. Thus, the staticfiles app ships with a quick and dirty helper view that you can use to serve files locally in development.

views.serve(request, path)

This view function serves static files in development.

Warning

This view will only work if DEBUG is True.

That’s because this view is grossly inefficient and probably insecure. This is only intended for local development, and should never be used in production.

Changed in Django 1.7:

This view will now raise an Http404 exception instead of ImproperlyConfigured when DEBUG is False.

Note

To guess the served files’ content types, this view relies on the mimetypes module from the Python standard library, which itself relies on the underlying platform’s map files. If you find that this view doesn’t return proper content types for certain files, it is most likely that the platform’s map files need to be updated. This can be achieved, for example, by installing or updating the mailcap package on a Red Hat distribution, or mime-support on a Debian distribution.

This view is automatically enabled by runserver (with a DEBUG setting set to True). To use the view with a different local development server, add the following snippet to the end of your primary URL configuration:

from django.conf import settings
from django.contrib.staticfiles import views

if settings.DEBUG:
    urlpatterns += [
        url(r'^static/(?P<path>.*)$', views.serve),
    ]

Note, the beginning of the pattern (r'^static/') should be your STATIC_URL setting.

Since this is a bit finicky, there’s also a helper function that’ll do this for you:

urls.staticfiles_urlpatterns()

This will return the proper URL pattern for serving static files to your already defined pattern list. Use it like this:

from django.contrib.staticfiles.urls import staticfiles_urlpatterns

# ... the rest of your URLconf here ...

urlpatterns += staticfiles_urlpatterns()

This will inspect your STATIC_URL setting and wire up the view to serve static files accordingly. Don’t forget to set the STATICFILES_DIRS setting appropriately to let django.contrib.staticfiles know where to look for files in addition to files in app directories.

Warning

This helper function will only work if DEBUG is True and your STATIC_URL setting is neither empty nor a full URL such as http://static.example.com/.

That’s because this view is grossly inefficient and probably insecure. This is only intended for local development, and should never be used in production.

Specialized test case to support ‘live testing’

class testing.StaticLiveServerCase

This unittest TestCase subclass extends django.test.LiveServerTestCase.

Just like its parent, you can use it to write tests that involve running the code under test and consuming it with testing tools through HTTP (e.g. Selenium, PhantomJS, etc.), because of which it’s needed that the static assets are also published.

But given the fact that it makes use of the django.contrib.staticfiles.views.serve() view described above, it can transparently overlay at test execution-time the assets provided by the staticfiles finders. This means you don’t need to run collectstatic before or as a part of your tests setup.

New in Django 1.7:

StaticLiveServerCase is new in Django 1.7. Previously its functionality was provided by django.test.LiveServerTestCase.

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