A “related manager” is a manager used in a one-to-many or many-to-many related context. This happens in two cases:
The “other side” of a
from django.db import models class Reporter(models.Model): # ... pass class Article(models.Model): reporter = models.ForeignKey(Reporter, on_delete=models.CASCADE)
In the above example, the methods below will be available on
Both sides of a
class Topping(models.Model): # ... pass class Pizza(models.Model): toppings = models.ManyToManyField(Topping)
In this example, the methods below will be available both on
topping.pizza_set and on
Adds the specified model objects to the related object set.
>>> b = Blog.objects.get(id=1) >>> e = Entry.objects.get(id=234) >>> b.entry_set.add(e) # Associates Entry e with Blog b.
In the example above, in the case of a
is used to perform the update. This requires the objects to already be
You can use the
bulk=False argument to instead have the related
manager perform the update by calling
add() with a many-to-many relationship, however, will not
save() methods, but rather create the relationships
QuerySet.bulk_create(). If you need to execute
some custom logic when a relationship is created, listen to the
bulk parameter was added. In older versions, foreign key
updates were always done using
you require the old behavior.
Creates a new object, saves it and puts it in the related object set. Returns the newly created object:
>>> b = Blog.objects.get(id=1) >>> e = b.entry_set.create( ... headline='Hello', ... body_text='Hi', ... pub_date=datetime.date(2005, 1, 1) ... ) # No need to call e.save() at this point -- it's already been saved.
This is equivalent to (but much simpler than):
>>> b = Blog.objects.get(id=1) >>> e = Entry( ... blog=b, ... headline='Hello', ... body_text='Hi', ... pub_date=datetime.date(2005, 1, 1) ... ) >>> e.save(force_insert=True)
Note that there’s no need to specify the keyword argument of the model
that defines the relationship. In the above example, we don’t pass the
create(). Django figures out that the new
blog field should be set to
Removes the specified model objects from the related object set:
>>> b = Blog.objects.get(id=1) >>> e = Entry.objects.get(id=234) >>> b.entry_set.remove(e) # Disassociates Entry e from Blog b.
e.save() is called in the example above
to perform the update. Using
remove() with a many-to-many
relationship, however, will delete the relationships using
means no model
save() methods are called; listen to the
m2m_changed signal if you wish to
execute custom code when a relationship is deleted.
ForeignKey objects, this method only
null=True. If the related field can’t be set to
NULL), then an object can’t be removed from a relation without
being added to another. In the above example, removing
b.entry_set() is equivalent to doing
e.blog = None, and because
ForeignKey doesn’t have
null=True, this is invalid.
ForeignKey objects, this method accepts
bulk argument to control how to perform the operation.
True (the default),
QuerySet.update() is used.
save() method of each individual model
instance is called instead. This triggers the
post_save signals and comes at the
expense of performance.
Removes all objects from the related object set:
>>> b = Blog.objects.get(id=1) >>> b.entry_set.clear()
Note this doesn’t delete the related objects – it just disassociates them.
clear() is only available on
null=True and it also
bulk keyword argument.
set(objs, bulk=True, clear=False)¶
Replace the set of related objects:
>>> new_list = [obj1, obj2, obj3] >>> e.related_set.set(new_list)
This method accepts a
clear argument to control how to perform the
False (the default), the elements missing from the
new set are removed using
remove() and only the new ones are added.
clear() method is called instead and the
whole set is added at once.
bulk argument is passed on to
Note that since
set() is a compound operation, it is subject to
race conditions. For instance, new objects may be added to the database
in between the call to
clear() and the call to
set() all apply database changes immediately for all types of
related fields. In other words, there is no need to call
on either end of the relationship.
Also, if you are using an intermediate model for a many-to-many relationship, then the
set() methods are
A related object set can be replaced in bulk with one operation by assigning a new iterable of objects to it:
>>> new_list = [obj1, obj2, obj3] >>> e.related_set = new_list
If the foreign key relationship has
null=True, then the related manager
will first disassociate any existing objects in the related set before adding
the contents of
new_list. Otherwise the objects in
new_list will be
added to the existing related object set.
In earlier versions, direct assignment used to perform
add(). It now performs a
set() with the keyword argument
Deprecated since version 1.10: Direct assignment is deprecated in favor of the
>>> e.related_set.set([obj1, obj2, obj3])
This prevents confusion about an assignment resulting in an implicit save.
Offline (Django 1.10):
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