設定

警告

Be careful when you override settings, especially when the default value is a non-empty list or dictionary, such as STATICFILES_FINDERS. Make sure you keep the components required by the features of Django you wish to use.

コアの設定

ここでは、Django の core で利用できる設定とそのデフォルト値をリストしました。contrib アプリで提供される設定のリストは、core の設定のトピックのインデックスの下にあります。入門的な資料については、 settings topic guide をご覧ください。

ABSOLUTE_URL_OVERRIDES

デフォルト値: {} (空の辞書)

A dictionary mapping "app_label.model_name" strings to functions that take a model object and return its URL. This is a way of inserting or overriding get_absolute_url() methods on a per-installation basis. Example:

ABSOLUTE_URL_OVERRIDES = {
    'blogs.weblog': lambda o: "/blogs/%s/" % o.slug,
    'news.story': lambda o: "/stories/%s/%s/" % (o.pub_year, o.slug),
}

Note that the model name used in this setting should be all lower-case, regardless of the case of the actual model class name.

ADMINS

デフォルト値: [] (空のリスト)

A list of all the people who get code error notifications. When DEBUG=False and AdminEmailHandler is configured in LOGGING (done by default), Django emails these people the details of exceptions raised in the request/response cycle.

Each item in the list should be a tuple of (Full name, email address). Example:

[('John', 'john@example.com'), ('Mary', 'mary@example.com')]

ALLOWED_HOSTS

デフォルト値: [] (空のリスト)

Django サイトを配信できるホスト/ドメイン名を表す文字列のリストです。これはセキュリティ対策の手段の1つで、一見安全な設定の Web サーバでも晒される可能性が高い、 HTTP Host header 攻撃 を防ぐことができます。

このリスト中の値は完全修飾名 (fully qualified names) (例: 'www.example.com') でも大丈夫です。その場合には、リクエストの Host ヘッダに完全一致するかチェックされます (ポートを含まない、大文字小文字を無視した比較になります)。ピリオドで始まる値は、サブドメインのワイルドカードとして利用できます。たとえば、'.example.com'example.comwww.example.com などの他のすべての example.com サブドメインにマッチします。'*' という値はあらゆるヘッダにマッチします。この場合には、責任を持って自前の Host ヘッダ検証機 (おそらくミドルウェアの形になり、その場合は MIDDLEWARE 設定の最初に置く必要があります) を書かなければなりません。

Django はあらゆるエントリで fully qualified domain name (FQDN) を許可しています。ブラウザの中には``Host`` ヘッダの最後にドットを付けるもありますが、Django は host の検証機でそれを取り除きます。

Host ヘッダ (と USE_X_FORWARDED_HOST が有効な場合は X-Forwarded-Host) が、このリストのどれとも一致しない場合、 django.http.HttpRequest.get_host()SuspiciousOperation 例外を起こします。

DEBUGTrue かつ ALLOWED_HOSTS が空なら、host は ['localhost', '127.0.0.1', '[::1]'] に対して検証されます。

ALLOWED_HOSTS is also checked when running tests.

このヘッダの検証は get_host() メソッドの実行時にのみ適用されます。もし request.META から直接 Host ヘッダにアクセスするコードを書いてしまうと、このセキュリティプロテクションを回避してしまうので注意してください。

Changed in Django 1.11:

In older versions, ALLOWED_HOSTS wasn't checked when running tests.

In older versions, ALLOWED_HOSTS wasn't checked if DEBUG=True. This was also changed in Django 1.10.3, 1.9.11, and 1.8.16 to prevent a DNS rebinding attack.

APPEND_SLASH

デフォルト値: True

True に設定すると、リクエスト URL が URLconf 内のどのパターンにもマッチせず、/ で終わっていなかった場合に、末尾に / を追加した URL への HTTP リダイレクトを発行します。ただし、リダイレクトすると POST リクエストで送信するデータが失われることがあるので注意が必要です。

APPEND_SLASH 設定は CommonMiddleware がインストールされているときのみ有効です。詳しくは see ミドルウェア (Middleware) を参照。また PREPEND_WWW もお読みください。

CACHES

デフォルト値:

{
    'default': {
        'BACKEND': 'django.core.cache.backends.locmem.LocMemCache',
    }
}

A dictionary containing the settings for all caches to be used with Django. It is a nested dictionary whose contents maps cache aliases to a dictionary containing the options for an individual cache.

The CACHES setting must configure a default cache; any number of additional caches may also be specified. If you are using a cache backend other than the local memory cache, or you need to define multiple caches, other options will be required. The following cache options are available.

BACKEND

デフォルト値: '' (空文字列)

使用するキャッシュ用バックエンド。ビルトインのキャッシュ用バックエンドには、次のものがあります。

  • 'django.core.cache.backends.db.DatabaseCache'
  • 'django.core.cache.backends.dummy.DummyCache'
  • 'django.core.cache.backends.filebased.FileBasedCache'
  • 'django.core.cache.backends.locmem.LocMemCache'
  • 'django.core.cache.backends.memcached.MemcachedCache'
  • 'django.core.cache.backends.memcached.PyLibMCCache'

Django に同梱されていないキャッシュ用バックエンドを使用する時は、BACKEND にバックエンドのクラスの完全修飾パス (例: mypackage.backends.whatever.WhateverCache) を設定してください。

KEY_FUNCTION

A string containing a dotted path to a function (or any callable) that defines how to compose a prefix, version and key into a final cache key. The default implementation is equivalent to the function:

def make_key(key, key_prefix, version):
    return ':'.join([key_prefix, str(version), key])

You may use any key function you want, as long as it has the same argument signature.

See the cache documentation for more information.

KEY_PREFIX

デフォルト値: '' (空文字列)

A string that will be automatically included (prepended by default) to all cache keys used by the Django server.

See the cache documentation for more information.

LOCATION

デフォルト値: '' (空文字列)

キャッシュに使う場所です。これには、ファイルシステム上のキャッシュディレクトリや、memcache サーバーのホスト名とポート番号のペア、あるいはローカルのメモリキャッシュに対する一意な名前などが指定できます。以下に例を示します。

CACHES = {
    'default': {
        'BACKEND': 'django.core.cache.backends.filebased.FileBasedCache',
        'LOCATION': '/var/tmp/django_cache',
    }
}

OPTIONS

デフォルト値: None

Extra parameters to pass to the cache backend. Available parameters vary depending on your cache backend.

Some information on available parameters can be found in the cache arguments documentation. For more information, consult your backend module's own documentation.

TIMEOUT

デフォルト値: 300

The number of seconds before a cache entry is considered stale. If the value of this settings is None, cache entries will not expire.

VERSION

デフォルト値: 1

The default version number for cache keys generated by the Django server.

See the cache documentation for more information.

CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_ALIAS

デフォルト値: default

The cache connection to use for the cache middleware.

CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_KEY_PREFIX

デフォルト値: '' (空文字列)

A string which will be prefixed to the cache keys generated by the cache middleware. This prefix is combined with the KEY_PREFIX setting; it does not replace it.

See Django's cache framework.

CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_SECONDS

デフォルト値: 600

The default number of seconds to cache a page for the cache middleware.

See Django's cache framework.

CSRF_USE_SESSIONS

New in Django 1.11.

デフォルト値: False

Whether to store the CSRF token in the user's session instead of in a cookie. It requires the use of django.contrib.sessions.

Storing the CSRF token in a cookie (Django's default) is safe, but storing it in the session is common practice in other web frameworks and therefore sometimes demanded by security auditors.

CSRF_FAILURE_VIEW

デフォルト値: 'django.views.csrf.csrf_failure'

A dotted path to the view function to be used when an incoming request is rejected by the CSRF protection. The function should have this signature:

def csrf_failure(request, reason=""):
    ...

where reason is a short message (intended for developers or logging, not for end users) indicating the reason the request was rejected. It should return an HttpResponseForbidden.

django.views.csrf.csrf_failure() accepts an additional template_name parameter that defaults to '403_csrf.html'. If a template with that name exists, it will be used to render the page.

CSRF_HEADER_NAME

デフォルト値: 'HTTP_X_CSRFTOKEN'

The name of the request header used for CSRF authentication.

As with other HTTP headers in request.META, the header name received from the server is normalized by converting all characters to uppercase, replacing any hyphens with underscores, and adding an 'HTTP_' prefix to the name. For example, if your client sends a 'X-XSRF-TOKEN' header, the setting should be 'HTTP_X_XSRF_TOKEN'.

CSRF_TRUSTED_ORIGINS

デフォルト値: [] (空のリスト)

A list of hosts which are trusted origins for unsafe requests (e.g. POST). For a secure unsafe request, Django's CSRF protection requires that the request have a Referer header that matches the origin present in the Host header. This prevents, for example, a POST request from subdomain.example.com from succeeding against api.example.com. If you need cross-origin unsafe requests over HTTPS, continuing the example, add "subdomain.example.com" to this list. The setting also supports subdomains, so you could add ".example.com", for example, to allow access from all subdomains of example.com.

DATABASES

デフォルト値: {} (空の辞書)

A dictionary containing the settings for all databases to be used with Django. It is a nested dictionary whose contents map a database alias to a dictionary containing the options for an individual database.

The DATABASES setting must configure a default database; any number of additional databases may also be specified.

The simplest possible settings file is for a single-database setup using SQLite. This can be configured using the following:

DATABASES = {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.sqlite3',
        'NAME': 'mydatabase',
    }
}

When connecting to other database backends, such as MySQL, Oracle, or PostgreSQL, additional connection parameters will be required. See the ENGINE setting below on how to specify other database types. This example is for PostgreSQL:

DATABASES = {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.postgresql',
        'NAME': 'mydatabase',
        'USER': 'mydatabaseuser',
        'PASSWORD': 'mypassword',
        'HOST': '127.0.0.1',
        'PORT': '5432',
    }
}

The following inner options that may be required for more complex configurations are available:

ATOMIC_REQUESTS

デフォルト値: False

Set this to True to wrap each view in a transaction on this database. See HTTP リクエストにトランザクションを結びつける.

AUTOCOMMIT

デフォルト値: True

Set this to False if you want to disable Django's transaction management and implement your own.

ENGINE

デフォルト値: '' (空文字列)

The database backend to use. The built-in database backends are:

  • 'django.db.backends.postgresql'
  • 'django.db.backends.mysql'
  • 'django.db.backends.sqlite3'
  • 'django.db.backends.oracle'

You can use a database backend that doesn't ship with Django by setting ENGINE to a fully-qualified path (i.e. mypackage.backends.whatever).

HOST

デフォルト値: '' (空文字列)

Which host to use when connecting to the database. An empty string means localhost. Not used with SQLite.

If this value starts with a forward slash ('/') and you're using MySQL, MySQL will connect via a Unix socket to the specified socket. For example:

"HOST": '/var/run/mysql'

If you're using MySQL and this value doesn't start with a forward slash, then this value is assumed to be the host.

If you're using PostgreSQL, by default (empty HOST), the connection to the database is done through UNIX domain sockets ('local' lines in pg_hba.conf). If your UNIX domain socket is not in the standard location, use the same value of unix_socket_directory from postgresql.conf. If you want to connect through TCP sockets, set HOST to 'localhost' or '127.0.0.1' ('host' lines in pg_hba.conf). On Windows, you should always define HOST, as UNIX domain sockets are not available.

NAME

デフォルト値: '' (空文字列)

The name of the database to use. For SQLite, it's the full path to the database file. When specifying the path, always use forward slashes, even on Windows (e.g. C:/homes/user/mysite/sqlite3.db).

CONN_MAX_AGE

デフォルト値: 0

The lifetime of a database connection, in seconds. Use 0 to close database connections at the end of each request — Django's historical behavior — and None for unlimited persistent connections.

OPTIONS

デフォルト値: {} (空の辞書)

Extra parameters to use when connecting to the database. Available parameters vary depending on your database backend.

Some information on available parameters can be found in the Database Backends documentation. For more information, consult your backend module's own documentation.

PASSWORD

デフォルト値: '' (空文字列)

The password to use when connecting to the database. Not used with SQLite.

PORT

デフォルト値: '' (空文字列)

The port to use when connecting to the database. An empty string means the default port. Not used with SQLite.

TIME_ZONE

デフォルト値: None

A string representing the time zone for datetimes stored in this database (assuming that it doesn't support time zones) or None. This inner option of the DATABASES setting accepts the same values as the general TIME_ZONE setting.

This allows interacting with third-party databases that store datetimes in local time rather than UTC. To avoid issues around DST changes, you shouldn't set this option for databases managed by Django.

When USE_TZ is True and the database doesn't support time zones (e.g. SQLite, MySQL, Oracle), Django reads and writes datetimes in local time according to this option if it is set and in UTC if it isn't.

When USE_TZ is True and the database supports time zones (e.g. PostgreSQL), it is an error to set this option.

When USE_TZ is False, it is an error to set this option.

DISABLE_SERVER_SIDE_CURSORS

New in Django 1.11.1.

デフォルト値: False

Set this to True if you want to disable the use of server-side cursors with QuerySet.iterator(). Transaction pooling and server-side cursors describes the use case.

This is a PostgreSQL-specific setting.

USER

デフォルト値: '' (空文字列)

The username to use when connecting to the database. Not used with SQLite.

TEST

デフォルト値: {} (空の辞書)

A dictionary of settings for test databases; for more details about the creation and use of test databases, see test データベース.

Here's an example with a test database configuration:

DATABASES = {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.postgresql',
        'USER': 'mydatabaseuser',
        'NAME': 'mydatabase',
        'TEST': {
            'NAME': 'mytestdatabase',
        },
    },
}

The following keys in the TEST dictionary are available:

CHARSET

デフォルト値: None

The character set encoding used to create the test database. The value of this string is passed directly through to the database, so its format is backend-specific.

Supported by the PostgreSQL (postgresql) and MySQL (mysql) backends.

COLLATION

デフォルト値: None

The collation order to use when creating the test database. This value is passed directly to the backend, so its format is backend-specific.

Only supported for the mysql backend (see the MySQL manual for details).

DEPENDENCIES

Default: ['default'], for all databases other than default, which has no dependencies.

The creation-order dependencies of the database. See the documentation on controlling the creation order of test databases for details.

MIRROR

デフォルト値: None

The alias of the database that this database should mirror during testing.

This setting exists to allow for testing of primary/replica (referred to as master/slave by some databases) configurations of multiple databases. See the documentation on testing primary/replica configurations for details.

NAME

デフォルト値: None

The name of database to use when running the test suite.

If the default value (None) is used with the SQLite database engine, the tests will use a memory resident database. For all other database engines the test database will use the name 'test_' + DATABASE_NAME.

See test データベース.

SERIALIZE

Boolean value to control whether or not the default test runner serializes the database into an in-memory JSON string before running tests (used to restore the database state between tests if you don't have transactions). You can set this to False to speed up creation time if you don't have any test classes with serialized_rollback=True.

TEMPLATE
New in Django 1.11.

This is a PostgreSQL-specific setting.

The name of a template (e.g. 'template0') from which to create the test database.

CREATE_DB

デフォルト値: True

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

If it is set to False, the test tablespaces won't be automatically created at the beginning of the tests or dropped at the end.

CREATE_USER

デフォルト値: True

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

If it is set to False, the test user won't be automatically created at the beginning of the tests and dropped at the end.

USER

デフォルト値: None

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The username to use when connecting to the Oracle database that will be used when running tests. If not provided, Django will use 'test_' + USER.

PASSWORD

デフォルト値: None

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The password to use when connecting to the Oracle database that will be used when running tests. If not provided, Django will generate a random password.

Changed in Django 1.11:

Older versions used a hardcoded default password. This was also changed in 1.10.3, 1.9.11, and 1.8.16 to fix possible security implications.

TBLSPACE

デフォルト値: None

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The name of the tablespace that will be used when running tests. If not provided, Django will use 'test_' + USER.

TBLSPACE_TMP

デフォルト値: None

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The name of the temporary tablespace that will be used when running tests. If not provided, Django will use 'test_' + USER + '_temp'.

DATAFILE

デフォルト値: None

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The name of the datafile to use for the TBLSPACE. If not provided, Django will use TBLSPACE + '.dbf'.

DATAFILE_TMP

デフォルト値: None

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The name of the datafile to use for the TBLSPACE_TMP. If not provided, Django will use TBLSPACE_TMP + '.dbf'.

DATAFILE_MAXSIZE

デフォルト値: '500M'

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The maximum size that the DATAFILE is allowed to grow to.

DATAFILE_TMP_MAXSIZE

デフォルト値: '500M'

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The maximum size that the DATAFILE_TMP is allowed to grow to.

DATAFILE_SIZE
New in Django 2.0.

Default: '50M'

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The initial size of the DATAFILE.

DATAFILE_TMP_SIZE
New in Django 2.0.

Default: '50M'

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The initial size of the DATAFILE_TMP.

DATAFILE_EXTSIZE
New in Django 2.0.

Default: '25M'

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The amount by which the DATAFILE is extended when more space is required.

DATAFILE_TMP_EXTSIZE
New in Django 2.0.

Default: '25M'

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The amount by which the DATAFILE_TMP is extended when more space is required.

DATA_UPLOAD_MAX_MEMORY_SIZE

デフォルト値: 2621440 (例: 2.5 MB)。

The maximum size in bytes that a request body may be before a SuspiciousOperation (RequestDataTooBig) is raised. The check is done when accessing request.body or request.POST and is calculated against the total request size excluding any file upload data. You can set this to None to disable the check. Applications that are expected to receive unusually large form posts should tune this setting.

The amount of request data is correlated to the amount of memory needed to process the request and populate the GET and POST dictionaries. Large requests could be used as a denial-of-service attack vector if left unchecked. Since web servers don't typically perform deep request inspection, it's not possible to perform a similar check at that level.

See also FILE_UPLOAD_MAX_MEMORY_SIZE.

DATA_UPLOAD_MAX_NUMBER_FIELDS

デフォルト値: 1000

The maximum number of parameters that may be received via GET or POST before a SuspiciousOperation (TooManyFields) is raised. You can set this to None to disable the check. Applications that are expected to receive an unusually large number of form fields should tune this setting.

The number of request parameters is correlated to the amount of time needed to process the request and populate the GET and POST dictionaries. Large requests could be used as a denial-of-service attack vector if left unchecked. Since web servers don't typically perform deep request inspection, it's not possible to perform a similar check at that level.

DATABASE_ROUTERS

デフォルト値: [] (空のリスト)

The list of routers that will be used to determine which database to use when performing a database query.

See the documentation on automatic database routing in multi database configurations.

DATE_FORMAT

デフォルト値: 'N j, Y' (例: Feb. 4, 2003)

The default formatting to use for displaying date fields in any part of the system. Note that if USE_L10N is set to True, then the locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead. See allowed date format strings.

See also DATETIME_FORMAT, TIME_FORMAT and SHORT_DATE_FORMAT.

DATE_INPUT_FORMATS

デフォルト値:

[
    '%Y-%m-%d', '%m/%d/%Y', '%m/%d/%y', # '2006-10-25', '10/25/2006', '10/25/06'
    '%b %d %Y', '%b %d, %Y',            # 'Oct 25 2006', 'Oct 25, 2006'
    '%d %b %Y', '%d %b, %Y',            # '25 Oct 2006', '25 Oct, 2006'
    '%B %d %Y', '%B %d, %Y',            # 'October 25 2006', 'October 25, 2006'
    '%d %B %Y', '%d %B, %Y',            # '25 October 2006', '25 October, 2006'
]

A list of formats that will be accepted when inputting data on a date field. Formats will be tried in order, using the first valid one. Note that these format strings use Python's datetime module syntax, not the format strings from the date template filter.

When USE_L10N is True, the locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead.

See also DATETIME_INPUT_FORMATS and TIME_INPUT_FORMATS.

DATETIME_FORMAT

デフォルト値: 'N j, Y, P' (例: Feb. 4, 2003, 4 p.m.)

The default formatting to use for displaying datetime fields in any part of the system. Note that if USE_L10N is set to True, then the locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead. See allowed date format strings.

See also DATE_FORMAT, TIME_FORMAT and SHORT_DATETIME_FORMAT.

DATETIME_INPUT_FORMATS

デフォルト値:

[
    '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S',     # '2006-10-25 14:30:59'
    '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S.%f',  # '2006-10-25 14:30:59.000200'
    '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M',        # '2006-10-25 14:30'
    '%Y-%m-%d',              # '2006-10-25'
    '%m/%d/%Y %H:%M:%S',     # '10/25/2006 14:30:59'
    '%m/%d/%Y %H:%M:%S.%f',  # '10/25/2006 14:30:59.000200'
    '%m/%d/%Y %H:%M',        # '10/25/2006 14:30'
    '%m/%d/%Y',              # '10/25/2006'
    '%m/%d/%y %H:%M:%S',     # '10/25/06 14:30:59'
    '%m/%d/%y %H:%M:%S.%f',  # '10/25/06 14:30:59.000200'
    '%m/%d/%y %H:%M',        # '10/25/06 14:30'
    '%m/%d/%y',              # '10/25/06'
]

A list of formats that will be accepted when inputting data on a datetime field. Formats will be tried in order, using the first valid one. Note that these format strings use Python's datetime module syntax, not the format strings from the date template filter.

When USE_L10N is True, the locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead.

See also DATE_INPUT_FORMATS and TIME_INPUT_FORMATS.

DEBUG

デフォルト値: False

A boolean that turns on/off debug mode.

Never deploy a site into production with DEBUG turned on.

Did you catch that? NEVER deploy a site into production with DEBUG turned on.

One of the main features of debug mode is the display of detailed error pages. If your app raises an exception when DEBUG is True, Django will display a detailed traceback, including a lot of metadata about your environment, such as all the currently defined Django settings (from settings.py).

As a security measure, Django will not include settings that might be sensitive, such as SECRET_KEY. Specifically, it will exclude any setting whose name includes any of the following:

  • 'API'
  • 'KEY'
  • 'PASS'
  • 'SECRET'
  • 'SIGNATURE'
  • 'TOKEN'

Note that these are partial matches. 'PASS' will also match PASSWORD, just as 'TOKEN' will also match TOKENIZED and so on.

Still, note that there are always going to be sections of your debug output that are inappropriate for public consumption. File paths, configuration options and the like all give attackers extra information about your server.

It is also important to remember that when running with DEBUG turned on, Django will remember every SQL query it executes. This is useful when you're debugging, but it'll rapidly consume memory on a production server.

Finally, if DEBUG is False, you also need to properly set the ALLOWED_HOSTS setting. Failing to do so will result in all requests being returned as "Bad Request (400)".

注釈

The default settings.py file created by django-admin startproject sets DEBUG = True for convenience.

DEBUG_PROPAGATE_EXCEPTIONS

デフォルト値: False

If set to True, Django's exception handling of view functions (handler500, or the debug view if DEBUG is True) and logging of 500 responses (django.request) is skipped and exceptions propagate upwards.

This can be useful for some test setups. It shouldn't be used on a live site unless you want your web server (instead of Django) to generate "Internal Server Error" responses. In that case, make sure your server doesn't show the stack trace or other sensitive information in the response.

DECIMAL_SEPARATOR

デフォルト値: '.' (ドット)

Default decimal separator used when formatting decimal numbers.

Note that if USE_L10N is set to True, then the locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead.

See also NUMBER_GROUPING, THOUSAND_SEPARATOR and USE_THOUSAND_SEPARATOR.

DEFAULT_CHARSET

デフォルト値: 'utf-8'

Default charset to use for all HttpResponse objects, if a MIME type isn't manually specified. Used with DEFAULT_CONTENT_TYPE to construct the Content-Type header.

DEFAULT_CONTENT_TYPE

デフォルト値: 'text/html'

Default content type to use for all HttpResponse objects, if a MIME type isn't manually specified. Used with DEFAULT_CHARSET to construct the Content-Type header.

バージョン 2.0 で非推奨: This setting is deprecated because it doesn't interact well with third-party apps and is obsolete since HTML5 has mostly superseded XHTML.

DEFAULT_EXCEPTION_REPORTER_FILTER

デフォルト値: 'django.views.debug.SafeExceptionReporterFilter'

Default exception reporter filter class to be used if none has been assigned to the HttpRequest instance yet. See Filtering error reports.

DEFAULT_FILE_STORAGE

デフォルト値: 'django.core.files.storage.FileSystemStorage'

Default file storage class to be used for any file-related operations that don't specify a particular storage system. See Managing files.

DEFAULT_FROM_EMAIL

デフォルト値: 'webmaster@localhost'

Default email address to use for various automated correspondence from the site manager(s). This doesn't include error messages sent to ADMINS and MANAGERS; for that, see SERVER_EMAIL.

DEFAULT_INDEX_TABLESPACE

デフォルト値: '' (空文字列)

Default tablespace to use for indexes on fields that don't specify one, if the backend supports it (see Tablespaces).

DEFAULT_TABLESPACE

デフォルト値: '' (空文字列)

Default tablespace to use for models that don't specify one, if the backend supports it (see Tablespaces).

DISALLOWED_USER_AGENTS

デフォルト値: [] (空のリスト)

List of compiled regular expression objects representing User-Agent strings that are not allowed to visit any page, systemwide. Use this for bad robots/crawlers. This is only used if CommonMiddleware is installed (see ミドルウェア (Middleware)).

EMAIL_BACKEND

デフォルト値: 'django.core.mail.backends.smtp.EmailBackend'

E メール送信に使われるバックエンドです。利用可能なバックエンドのリストは メールを送信する を参照してください。

EMAIL_FILE_PATH

デフォルト値: 定義されていません

ファイル E メールバックエンドが出力するファイルを保存するためのディレクトリです。

EMAIL_HOST

デフォルト値: 'localhost'

E メール送信に使われるホストです。

EMAIL_PORT も参照してください。

EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD

デフォルト値: '' (空文字列)

EMAIL_HOST 内で定義された SMTP サーバで使われるパスワードです。この設定は、STMP サーバへの認証の際に EMAIL_HOST_USER と組み合わせて用いられます。どちらかの設定が空の場合、Django は認証を試みません。

EMAIL_HOST_USER も参照してください。

EMAIL_HOST_USER

デフォルト値: '' (空文字列)

EMAIL_HOST 内で定義された SMTP サーバで使われるユーザ名です。空の場合、Django は認証を試みません。

EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD も参照してください。

EMAIL_PORT

デフォルト値: 25

EMAIL_HOST 内で定義された SMTP サーバで使われるポート番号です。

EMAIL_SUBJECT_PREFIX

デフォルト値: '[Django] '

django.core.mail.mail_adminsdjango.core.mail.mail_managers で送信される E メールメッセージ用の表題行のプレフィックスです。最後の文字はスペースにするのが良いでしょう。

EMAIL_USE_LOCALTIME

New in Django 1.11.

デフォルト値: False

Whether to send the SMTP Date header of email messages in the local time zone (True) or in UTC (False).

EMAIL_USE_TLS

デフォルト値: False

SMTP サーバと通信する際に TLS (セキュア) 接続を使うかどうかです。明示的な TLS 接続に使われ、通常はポート 587 で行われます。接続がハングしてしまう場合は、暗黙的な TLS を示す EMAIL_USE_SSL を確認してみてください。

EMAIL_USE_SSL

デフォルト値: False

SMTP サーバと通信する際に TLS (セキュア) 接続を使うかどうかです。ほとんどの E メールのドキュメントでは、この TLS 接続のタイプは SSL として参照されます。通常はポート 465 が使われます。接続がハングしてしまう場合は、暗黙的な TLS を示す EMAIL_USE_TLS を確認してみてください。

EMAIL_USE_TLS/EMAIL_USE_SSL は相互に排他的であることに注意してください。したがって、どちらか一方だけを True にセットしてください。

EMAIL_SSL_CERTFILE

デフォルト値: None

EMAIL_USE_SSL ないし EMAIL_USE_TLSTrue の場合、オプションで、SSL 接続用に使う PEM フォーマットの証明書チェーンファイルを指定することができます。

EMAIL_SSL_KEYFILE

デフォルト値: None

EMAIL_USE_SSL ないし EMAIL_USE_TLSTrue の場合、オプションで、SSL 接続用に使う PEM フォーマットのプライベートキーファイルを指定することができます。

設定 EMAIL_SSL_CERTFILEEMAIL_SSL_KEYFILE は証明書チェックには使われません。これらは元の SSL 接続に渡されます。証明書チェーンファイルとプライベートキーファイルがどのように処理されるかについての詳細は、パイソンの ssl.wrap_socket() 関数のドキュメントを参照してください。

EMAIL_TIMEOUT

デフォルト値: None

接続試行のような操作をブロックするためのタイムアウトを秒で指定します。

FILE_CHARSET

デフォルト値: 'utf-8'

The character encoding used to decode any files read from disk. This includes template files and initial SQL data files.

FILE_UPLOAD_HANDLERS

デフォルト値:

[
    'django.core.files.uploadhandler.MemoryFileUploadHandler',
    'django.core.files.uploadhandler.TemporaryFileUploadHandler',
]

A list of handlers to use for uploading. Changing this setting allows complete customization -- even replacement -- of Django's upload process.

See Managing files for details.

FILE_UPLOAD_MAX_MEMORY_SIZE

デフォルト値: 2621440 (例: 2.5 MB)。

The maximum size (in bytes) that an upload will be before it gets streamed to the file system. See Managing files for details.

See also DATA_UPLOAD_MAX_MEMORY_SIZE.

FILE_UPLOAD_DIRECTORY_PERMISSIONS

デフォルト値: None

The numeric mode to apply to directories created in the process of uploading files.

This setting also determines the default permissions for collected static directories when using the collectstatic management command. See collectstatic for details on overriding it.

This value mirrors the functionality and caveats of the FILE_UPLOAD_PERMISSIONS setting.

FILE_UPLOAD_PERMISSIONS

デフォルト値: None

The numeric mode (i.e. 0o644) to set newly uploaded files to. For more information about what these modes mean, see the documentation for os.chmod().

If this isn't given or is None, you'll get operating-system dependent behavior. On most platforms, temporary files will have a mode of 0o600, and files saved from memory will be saved using the system's standard umask.

For security reasons, these permissions aren't applied to the temporary files that are stored in FILE_UPLOAD_TEMP_DIR.

This setting also determines the default permissions for collected static files when using the collectstatic management command. See collectstatic for details on overriding it.

警告

Always prefix the mode with a 0.

If you're not familiar with file modes, please note that the leading 0 is very important: it indicates an octal number, which is the way that modes must be specified. If you try to use 644, you'll get totally incorrect behavior.

FILE_UPLOAD_TEMP_DIR

デフォルト値: None

The directory to store data to (typically files larger than FILE_UPLOAD_MAX_MEMORY_SIZE) temporarily while uploading files. If None, Django will use the standard temporary directory for the operating system. For example, this will default to /tmp on *nix-style operating systems.

See Managing files for details.

FIRST_DAY_OF_WEEK

デフォルト値: 0 (日曜日)

A number representing the first day of the week. This is especially useful when displaying a calendar. This value is only used when not using format internationalization, or when a format cannot be found for the current locale.

The value must be an integer from 0 to 6, where 0 means Sunday, 1 means Monday and so on.

FIXTURE_DIRS

デフォルト値: [] (空のリスト)

List of directories searched for fixture files, in addition to the fixtures directory of each application, in search order.

Note that these paths should use Unix-style forward slashes, even on Windows.

See Providing initial data with fixtures and Fixture loading.

FORCE_SCRIPT_NAME

デフォルト値: None

If not None, this will be used as the value of the SCRIPT_NAME environment variable in any HTTP request. This setting can be used to override the server-provided value of SCRIPT_NAME, which may be a rewritten version of the preferred value or not supplied at all. It is also used by django.setup() to set the URL resolver script prefix outside of the request/response cycle (e.g. in management commands and standalone scripts) to generate correct URLs when SCRIPT_NAME is not /.

FORM_RENDERER

New in Django 1.11.

Default: 'django.forms.renderers.DjangoTemplates'

The class that renders form widgets. It must implement the low-level render API.

FORMAT_MODULE_PATH

デフォルト値: None

A full Python path to a Python package that contains custom format definitions for project locales. If not None, Django will check for a formats.py file, under the directory named as the current locale, and will use the formats defined in this file.

For example, if FORMAT_MODULE_PATH is set to mysite.formats, and current language is en (English), Django will expect a directory tree like:

mysite/
    formats/
        __init__.py
        en/
            __init__.py
            formats.py

You can also set this setting to a list of Python paths, for example:

FORMAT_MODULE_PATH = [
    'mysite.formats',
    'some_app.formats',
]

When Django searches for a certain format, it will go through all given Python paths until it finds a module that actually defines the given format. This means that formats defined in packages farther up in the list will take precedence over the same formats in packages farther down.

Available formats are:

IGNORABLE_404_URLS

デフォルト値: [] (空のリスト)

List of compiled regular expression objects describing URLs that should be ignored when reporting HTTP 404 errors via email (see Error reporting). Regular expressions are matched against request's full paths (including query string, if any). Use this if your site does not provide a commonly requested file such as favicon.ico or robots.txt, or if it gets hammered by script kiddies.

This is only used if BrokenLinkEmailsMiddleware is enabled (see ミドルウェア (Middleware)).

INSTALLED_APPS

デフォルト値: [] (空のリスト)

A list of strings designating all applications that are enabled in this Django installation. Each string should be a dotted Python path to:

  • an application configuration class (preferred), or
  • a package containing an application.

Learn more about application configurations.

Use the application registry for introspection

Your code should never access INSTALLED_APPS directly. Use django.apps.apps instead.

Application names and labels must be unique in INSTALLED_APPS

Application names — the dotted Python path to the application package — must be unique. There is no way to include the same application twice, short of duplicating its code under another name.

Application labels — by default the final part of the name — must be unique too. For example, you can't include both django.contrib.auth and myproject.auth. However, you can relabel an application with a custom configuration that defines a different label.

These rules apply regardless of whether INSTALLED_APPS references application configuration classes or application packages.

When several applications provide different versions of the same resource (template, static file, management command, translation), the application listed first in INSTALLED_APPS has precedence.

INTERNAL_IPS

デフォルト値: [] (空のリスト)

A list of IP addresses, as strings, that:

  • Allow the debug() context processor to add some variables to the template context.
  • Can use the admindocs bookmarklets even if not logged in as a staff user.
  • Are marked as "internal" (as opposed to "EXTERNAL") in AdminEmailHandler emails.

LANGUAGE_CODE

デフォルト値: 'en-us'

このインストールに対する言語コードを表す文字列です。標準の 言語 ID フォーマット 内にある文字列を指定します。例えば、U.S. の英語は "en-us" です。list of language identifiers国際化とローカル化 も参照してください。

この設定が効果を持つためには、USE_I18N をアクティブにする必要があります。

これは 2 つの目的に使われます:

  • ロケールミドルウェアが使用されていない場合、全ユーザにどの翻訳を提供するかを決めます。
  • ロケールミドルウェアがアクティブの場合、ユーザの好む言語が不明な場合やウェブサイトでサポートされていない場合に備えて、フォールバックの言語として利用されます。また、与えられた文字列に対して、ユーザの好む言語に対応する翻訳が存在しない場合にも、この設定が利用されます。

詳しくは How Django discovers language preference を参照してください。

LANGUAGES

デフォルト値: 利用可能な全ての言語のリストです。このリストは成長し続け、ここに複製してもすぐに時代遅れとなります。django/conf/global_settings.py` (もしくはその オンラインのソース) を読むと、翻訳される言語の現在のリストを確認することができます。

このリストは、(言語コード, 言語名) 形式の 2 タプルのリストです -- 例えば ('ja', 'Japanese') です。これはどの言語が言語選択で利用可能かを指定します。国際化とローカル化 を参照してください。

一般的には、デフォルト値で十分です。Django が提供する言語の部分集合に選択肢を限定したいときにのみ、この設定を自分でセットしてください。

If you define a custom LANGUAGES setting, you can mark the language names as translation strings using the gettext_lazy() function.

以下はサンプルの設定ファイルです:

from django.utils.translation import gettext_lazy as _

LANGUAGES = [
    ('de', _('German')),
    ('en', _('English')),
]

LOCALE_PATHS

デフォルト値: [] (空のリスト)

Django が翻訳ファイルを探すディレクトリのリストです。How Django discovers translations を参照してください。

実装例:

LOCALE_PATHS = [
    '/home/www/project/common_files/locale',
    '/var/local/translations/locale',
]

Django は、実際の翻訳ファイルを含む <locale_code>/LC_MESSAGES ディレクトリに対して、これらのパス内をそれぞれ見ていきます。

LOGGING

デフォルト値: ロギング設定のディレクトリ。

A data structure containing configuration information. The contents of this data structure will be passed as the argument to the configuration method described in LOGGING_CONFIG.

Among other things, the default logging configuration passes HTTP 500 server errors to an email log handler when DEBUG is False. See also Configuring logging.

You can see the default logging configuration by looking in django/utils/log.py (or view the online source).

LOGGING_CONFIG

デフォルト値: 'logging.config.dictConfig'

A path to a callable that will be used to configure logging in the Django project. Points at an instance of Python's dictConfig configuration method by default.

If you set LOGGING_CONFIG to None, the logging configuration process will be skipped.

MANAGERS

デフォルト値: [] (空のリスト)

A list in the same format as ADMINS that specifies who should get broken link notifications when BrokenLinkEmailsMiddleware is enabled.

MEDIA_ROOT

デフォルト値: '' (空文字列)

Absolute filesystem path to the directory that will hold user-uploaded files.

Example: "/var/www/example.com/media/"

See also MEDIA_URL.

警告

MEDIA_ROOT and STATIC_ROOT must have different values. Before STATIC_ROOT was introduced, it was common to rely or fallback on MEDIA_ROOT to also serve static files; however, since this can have serious security implications, there is a validation check to prevent it.

MEDIA_URL

デフォルト値: '' (空文字列)

URL that handles the media served from MEDIA_ROOT, used for managing stored files. It must end in a slash if set to a non-empty value. You will need to configure these files to be served in both development and production environments.

If you want to use {{ MEDIA_URL }} in your templates, add 'django.template.context_processors.media' in the 'context_processors' option of TEMPLATES.

Example: "http://media.example.com/"

警告

信頼できないユーザーからコンテンツアップロードを許可する場合、セキュリティリスクが存在します!緩和策の詳細は、User-uploaded content のセキュリティガイドをご覧ください。

警告

MEDIA_URL and STATIC_URL must have different values. See MEDIA_ROOT for more details.

MIDDLEWARE

デフォルト値: None

A list of middleware to use. See ミドルウェア (Middleware).

MIGRATION_MODULES

デフォルト値: {} (空の辞書)

A dictionary specifying the package where migration modules can be found on a per-app basis. The default value of this setting is an empty dictionary, but the default package name for migration modules is migrations.

実装例:

{'blog': 'blog.db_migrations'}

In this case, migrations pertaining to the blog app will be contained in the blog.db_migrations package.

If you provide the app_label argument, makemigrations will automatically create the package if it doesn't already exist.

When you supply None as a value for an app, Django will consider the app as an app without migrations regardless of an existing migrations submodule. This can be used, for example, in a test settings file to skip migrations while testing (tables will still be created for the apps' models). If this is used in your general project settings, remember to use the migrate --run-syncdb option if you want to create tables for the app.

MONTH_DAY_FORMAT

デフォルト値: 'F j'

admin change-list のページの日付をフォーマットする時のデフォルト値です。システムの他の場所で月と日だけが表示される場合に使用される可能性があります。

たとえば、Django の admin change-list のページを日付でフィルタする時、与えられた日付のヘッダには月と日が表示されます。

USE_L10NTrue に設定すると、ロケールに基づいた対応するフォーマットが高い優先度で適用されるので気をつけてください。

allowed date format strings を参照してください。また、DATE_FORMAT, DATETIME_FORMAT, TIME_FORMAT, YEAR_MONTH_FORMAT も参照してください。

NUMBER_GROUPING

デフォルト値: 0

数の整数部分をまとめるときの桁数です。

よくある使われ方は、1000倍の区切り文字を表示するときです。0 に設定すると、数に対してグルーピングを行いません。0 より大きい値を指定すると、 THOUSAND_SEPARATOR が区切り位置を求めるのに使います。

Some locales use non-uniform digit grouping, e.g. 10,00,00,000 in en_IN. For this case, you can provide a sequence with the number of digit group sizes to be applied. The first number defines the size of the group preceding the decimal delimiter, and each number that follows defines the size of preceding groups. If the sequence is terminated with -1, no further grouping is performed. If the sequence terminates with a 0, the last group size is used for the remainder of the number.

Example tuple for en_IN:

NUMBER_GROUPING = (3, 2, 0)

Note that if USE_L10N is set to True, then the locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead.

DECIMAL_SEPARATOR, THOUSAND_SEPARATOR, USE_THOUSAND_SEPARATOR も参照してください。

Changed in Django 1.11:

Support for non-uniform digit grouping was added.

PREPEND_WWW

デフォルト値: False

"www." サブドメインが URL に含まれていない時、自動的に頭に追加するかどうかを指定します。この設定が有効になるのは、 CommonMiddleware がインストールされている時のみです (参照: ミドルウェア (Middleware))。APPEND_SLASH も参照してください。

ROOT_URLCONF

デフォルト値: 定義されていません

文字列で表現した、ルートの URLconf への Python の完全な import path です。たとえば、 "mydjangoapps.urls" です。入力側の HttpRequest オブジェクトに urlconf 属性を設定すれば、リクエスト単位で値を上書きすることができます。詳しくは Django のリクエスト処理 を参照。

SECRET_KEY

デフォルト値: '' (空文字列)

Django のインストールごとに設定される個別の秘密鍵です。cryptographic signing に使われる鍵であり、ユニークかつ予測できない値でなければなりません。

django-admin startproject コマンドを実行すると、新しいプロジェクトを作成するたびに、ランダムに生成された SECRET_KEY を自動的に設定してくれます。

Uses of the key shouldn't assume that it's text or bytes. Every use should go through force_text() or force_bytes() to convert it to the desired type.

SECRET_KEY が設定されていない場合、Django は起動しません。

警告

この値は、絶対に秘密にしてください。

Django を既知の setting:SECRET_KEY で実行してしまうと、Django の多数のセキュリティプロテクションが破られ、結果的に、コンピュータの重要な権限が取得されてリモートコード実行の脆弱性に晒されてしまいます。

秘密鍵は次のような場合に使われます。

If you rotate your secret key, all of the above will be invalidated. Secret keys are not used for passwords of users and key rotation will not affect them.

注釈

The default settings.py file created by django-admin startproject creates a unique SECRET_KEY for convenience.

SECURE_BROWSER_XSS_FILTER

デフォルト値: False

If True, the SecurityMiddleware sets the X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block header on all responses that do not already have it.

SECURE_CONTENT_TYPE_NOSNIFF

デフォルト値: False

If True, the SecurityMiddleware sets the X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff header on all responses that do not already have it.

SECURE_HSTS_INCLUDE_SUBDOMAINS

デフォルト値: False

If True, the SecurityMiddleware adds the includeSubDomains directive to the HTTP Strict Transport Security header. It has no effect unless SECURE_HSTS_SECONDS is set to a non-zero value.

警告

Setting this incorrectly can irreversibly (for the value of SECURE_HSTS_SECONDS) break your site. Read the HTTP Strict Transport Security documentation first.

SECURE_HSTS_PRELOAD

New in Django 1.11.

デフォルト値: False

If True, the SecurityMiddleware adds the preload directive to the HTTP Strict Transport Security header. It has no effect unless SECURE_HSTS_SECONDS is set to a non-zero value.

SECURE_HSTS_SECONDS

デフォルト値: 0

If set to a non-zero integer value, the SecurityMiddleware sets the HTTP Strict Transport Security header on all responses that do not already have it.

警告

Setting this incorrectly can irreversibly (for some time) break your site. Read the HTTP Strict Transport Security documentation first.

SECURE_PROXY_SSL_HEADER

デフォルト値: None

A tuple representing a HTTP header/value combination that signifies a request is secure. This controls the behavior of the request object's is_secure() method.

This takes some explanation. By default, is_secure() is able to determine whether a request is secure by looking at whether the requested URL uses "https://". This is important for Django's CSRF protection, and may be used by your own code or third-party apps.

If your Django app is behind a proxy, though, the proxy may be "swallowing" the fact that a request is HTTPS, using a non-HTTPS connection between the proxy and Django. In this case, is_secure() would always return False -- even for requests that were made via HTTPS by the end user.

In this situation, you'll want to configure your proxy to set a custom HTTP header that tells Django whether the request came in via HTTPS, and you'll want to set SECURE_PROXY_SSL_HEADER so that Django knows what header to look for.

You'll need to set a tuple with two elements -- the name of the header to look for and the required value. For example:

SECURE_PROXY_SSL_HEADER = ('HTTP_X_FORWARDED_PROTO', 'https')

Here, we're telling Django that we trust the X-Forwarded-Proto header that comes from our proxy, and any time its value is 'https', then the request is guaranteed to be secure (i.e., it originally came in via HTTPS). Obviously, you should only set this setting if you control your proxy or have some other guarantee that it sets/strips this header appropriately.

Note that the header needs to be in the format as used by request.META -- all caps and likely starting with HTTP_. (Remember, Django automatically adds 'HTTP_' to the start of x-header names before making the header available in request.META.)

警告

You will probably open security holes in your site if you set this without knowing what you're doing. And if you fail to set it when you should. Seriously.

Make sure ALL of the following are true before setting this (assuming the values from the example above):

  • Your Django app is behind a proxy.
  • Your proxy strips the X-Forwarded-Proto header from all incoming requests. In other words, if end users include that header in their requests, the proxy will discard it.
  • Your proxy sets the X-Forwarded-Proto header and sends it to Django, but only for requests that originally come in via HTTPS.

If any of those are not true, you should keep this setting set to None and find another way of determining HTTPS, perhaps via custom middleware.

SECURE_REDIRECT_EXEMPT

デフォルト値: [] (空のリスト)

If a URL path matches a regular expression in this list, the request will not be redirected to HTTPS. If SECURE_SSL_REDIRECT is False, this setting has no effect.

SECURE_SSL_HOST

デフォルト値: None

If a string (e.g. secure.example.com), all SSL redirects will be directed to this host rather than the originally-requested host (e.g. www.example.com). If SECURE_SSL_REDIRECT is False, this setting has no effect.

SECURE_SSL_REDIRECT

デフォルト値: False

If True, the SecurityMiddleware redirects all non-HTTPS requests to HTTPS (except for those URLs matching a regular expression listed in SECURE_REDIRECT_EXEMPT).

注釈

If turning this to True causes infinite redirects, it probably means your site is running behind a proxy and can't tell which requests are secure and which are not. Your proxy likely sets a header to indicate secure requests; you can correct the problem by finding out what that header is and configuring the SECURE_PROXY_SSL_HEADER setting accordingly.

SERIALIZATION_MODULES

デフォルト値: 定義されていません

A dictionary of modules containing serializer definitions (provided as strings), keyed by a string identifier for that serialization type. For example, to define a YAML serializer, use:

SERIALIZATION_MODULES = {'yaml': 'path.to.yaml_serializer'}

SERVER_EMAIL

デフォルト値: 'root@localhost'

The email address that error messages come from, such as those sent to ADMINS and MANAGERS.

Why are my emails sent from a different address?

This address is used only for error messages. It is not the address that regular email messages sent with send_mail() come from; for that, see DEFAULT_FROM_EMAIL.

SHORT_DATE_FORMAT

デフォルト値: 'm/d/Y' (例: 12/31/2003)

An available formatting that can be used for displaying date fields on templates. Note that if USE_L10N is set to True, then the corresponding locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied. See allowed date format strings.

See also DATE_FORMAT and SHORT_DATETIME_FORMAT.

SHORT_DATETIME_FORMAT

デフォルト値: 'm/d/Y P' (例: 12/31/2003 4 p.m.)

An available formatting that can be used for displaying datetime fields on templates. Note that if USE_L10N is set to True, then the corresponding locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied. See allowed date format strings.

See also DATE_FORMAT and SHORT_DATE_FORMAT.

SIGNING_BACKEND

デフォルト値: 'django.core.signing.TimestampSigner'

The backend used for signing cookies and other data.

See also the 暗号署名 documentation.

SILENCED_SYSTEM_CHECKS

デフォルト値: [] (空のリスト)

A list of identifiers of messages generated by the system check framework (i.e. ["models.W001"]) that you wish to permanently acknowledge and ignore. Silenced checks will not be output to the console.

See also the System check framework documentation.

TEMPLATES

デフォルト値: [] (空のリスト)

A list containing the settings for all template engines to be used with Django. Each item of the list is a dictionary containing the options for an individual engine.

Here's a simple setup that tells the Django template engine to load templates from the templates subdirectory inside each installed application:

TEMPLATES = [
    {
        'BACKEND': 'django.template.backends.django.DjangoTemplates',
        'APP_DIRS': True,
    },
]

The following options are available for all backends.

BACKEND

デフォルト値: 定義されていません

The template backend to use. The built-in template backends are:

  • 'django.template.backends.django.DjangoTemplates'
  • 'django.template.backends.jinja2.Jinja2'

You can use a template backend that doesn't ship with Django by setting BACKEND to a fully-qualified path (i.e. 'mypackage.whatever.Backend').

NAME

デフォルト値: 下記をご覧ください

The alias for this particular template engine. It's an identifier that allows selecting an engine for rendering. Aliases must be unique across all configured template engines.

It defaults to the name of the module defining the engine class, i.e. the next to last piece of BACKEND, when it isn't provided. For example if the backend is 'mypackage.whatever.Backend' then its default name is 'whatever'.

DIRS

デフォルト値: [] (空のリスト)

Directories where the engine should look for template source files, in search order.

APP_DIRS

デフォルト値: False

Whether the engine should look for template source files inside installed applications.

注釈

The default settings.py file created by django-admin startproject sets 'APP_DIRS': True.

OPTIONS

デフォルト値: {} (空のディクショナリ)

Extra parameters to pass to the template backend. Available parameters vary depending on the template backend. See DjangoTemplates and Jinja2 for the options of the built-in backends.

TEST_RUNNER

デフォルト値: 'django.test.runner.DiscoverRunner'

The name of the class to use for starting the test suite. See Using different testing frameworks.

TEST_NON_SERIALIZED_APPS

デフォルト値: [] (空のリスト)

In order to restore the database state between tests for TransactionTestCases and database backends without transactions, Django will serialize the contents of all apps when it starts the test run so it can then reload from that copy before running tests that need it.

This slows down the startup time of the test runner; if you have apps that you know don't need this feature, you can add their full names in here (e.g. 'django.contrib.contenttypes') to exclude them from this serialization process.

THOUSAND_SEPARATOR

デフォルト値: ',' (カンマ)

Default thousand separator used when formatting numbers. This setting is used only when USE_THOUSAND_SEPARATOR is True and NUMBER_GROUPING is greater than 0.

Note that if USE_L10N is set to True, then the locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead.

See also NUMBER_GROUPING, DECIMAL_SEPARATOR and USE_THOUSAND_SEPARATOR.

TIME_FORMAT

デフォルト値: 'P' (例: 4 p.m.)

The default formatting to use for displaying time fields in any part of the system. Note that if USE_L10N is set to True, then the locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead. See allowed date format strings.

See also DATE_FORMAT and DATETIME_FORMAT.

TIME_INPUT_FORMATS

デフォルト値:

[
    '%H:%M:%S',     # '14:30:59'
    '%H:%M:%S.%f',  # '14:30:59.000200'
    '%H:%M',        # '14:30'
]

A list of formats that will be accepted when inputting data on a time field. Formats will be tried in order, using the first valid one. Note that these format strings use Python's datetime module syntax, not the format strings from the date template filter.

When USE_L10N is True, the locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead.

See also DATE_INPUT_FORMATS and DATETIME_INPUT_FORMATS.

TIME_ZONE

デフォルト値: 'America/Chicago'

A string representing the time zone for this installation. See the list of time zones.

注釈

Django は最初 TIME_ZONE'America/Chicago' にしてリリースされていたので、後方互換性のために (プロジェクト内で settings.py が定義されていないときに使われる) グローバル設定は 'America/Chicago' のままになっています。新しいプロジェクトのテンプレートではデフォルトは 'UTC' です。

これは必ずしもサーバのタイムゾーンではないことに注意してください。例えば、1 つのサーバ内に Django 製のサイトがあり、それぞれが異なるタイムゾーン設定を持つこともできます。

USE_TZFalse のとき、これは Django が日時を保持するタイムゾーンとなります。USE_TZTrue のとき、これは Django がテンプレート内で日時を表示するため、およびフォーム内で入力された日時を解釈するために使う、デフォルトのタイムゾーンです。

On Unix environments (where time.tzset() is implemented), Django sets the os.environ['TZ'] variable to the time zone you specify in the TIME_ZONE setting. Thus, all your views and models will automatically operate in this time zone. However, Django won't set the TZ environment variable if you're using the manual configuration option as described in manually configuring settings. If Django doesn't set the TZ environment variable, it's up to you to ensure your processes are running in the correct environment.

注釈

Django は、Windows 環境で代替タイムゾーンを正しく扱うことができません。Django を Windows で実行している場合、TIME_ZONE はシステムのタイムゾーンに合わせてセットする必要があります。

USE_ETAGS

デフォルト値: False

A boolean that specifies whether to output the ETag header. This saves bandwidth but slows down performance. This is used by the CommonMiddleware and in the cache framework.

バージョン 1.11 で非推奨: This setting is deprecated in favor of using ConditionalGetMiddleware, which sets an ETag regardless of this setting.

USE_I18N

デフォルト値: True

A boolean that specifies whether Django's translation system should be enabled. This provides an easy way to turn it off, for performance. If this is set to False, Django will make some optimizations so as not to load the translation machinery.

See also LANGUAGE_CODE, USE_L10N and USE_TZ.

注釈

The default settings.py file created by django-admin startproject includes USE_I18N = True for convenience.

USE_L10N

デフォルト値: False

A boolean that specifies if localized formatting of data will be enabled by default or not. If this is set to True, e.g. Django will display numbers and dates using the format of the current locale.

See also LANGUAGE_CODE, USE_I18N and USE_TZ.

注釈

The default settings.py file created by django-admin startproject includes USE_L10N = True for convenience.

USE_THOUSAND_SEPARATOR

デフォルト値: False

A boolean that specifies whether to display numbers using a thousand separator. When USE_L10N is set to True and if this is also set to True, Django will use the values of THOUSAND_SEPARATOR and NUMBER_GROUPING to format numbers unless the locale already has an existing thousands separator. If there is a thousands separator in the locale format, it will have higher precedence and will be applied instead.

See also DECIMAL_SEPARATOR, NUMBER_GROUPING and THOUSAND_SEPARATOR.

USE_TZ

デフォルト値: False

A boolean that specifies if datetimes will be timezone-aware by default or not. If this is set to True, Django will use timezone-aware datetimes internally. Otherwise, Django will use naive datetimes in local time.

See also TIME_ZONE, USE_I18N and USE_L10N.

注釈

The default settings.py file created by django-admin startproject includes USE_TZ = True for convenience.

USE_X_FORWARDED_HOST

デフォルト値: False

A boolean that specifies whether to use the X-Forwarded-Host header in preference to the Host header. This should only be enabled if a proxy which sets this header is in use.

This setting takes priority over USE_X_FORWARDED_PORT. Per RFC 7239#page-7, the X-Forwarded-Host header can include the port number, in which case you shouldn't use USE_X_FORWARDED_PORT.

USE_X_FORWARDED_PORT

デフォルト値: False

A boolean that specifies whether to use the X-Forwarded-Port header in preference to the SERVER_PORT META variable. This should only be enabled if a proxy which sets this header is in use.

USE_X_FORWARDED_HOST takes priority over this setting.

WSGI_APPLICATION

デフォルト値: None

The full Python path of the WSGI application object that Django's built-in servers (e.g. runserver) will use. The django-admin startproject management command will create a simple wsgi.py file with an application callable in it, and point this setting to that application.

If not set, the return value of django.core.wsgi.get_wsgi_application() will be used. In this case, the behavior of runserver will be identical to previous Django versions.

YEAR_MONTH_FORMAT

デフォルト値: 'F Y'

The default formatting to use for date fields on Django admin change-list pages -- and, possibly, by other parts of the system -- in cases when only the year and month are displayed.

For example, when a Django admin change-list page is being filtered by a date drilldown, the header for a given month displays the month and the year. Different locales have different formats. For example, U.S. English would say "January 2006," whereas another locale might say "2006/January."

USE_L10NTrue に設定すると、ロケールに基づいた対応するフォーマットが高い優先度で適用されるので気をつけてください。

See allowed date format strings. See also DATE_FORMAT, DATETIME_FORMAT, TIME_FORMAT and MONTH_DAY_FORMAT.

X_FRAME_OPTIONS

デフォルト値: 'SAMEORIGIN'

The default value for the X-Frame-Options header used by XFrameOptionsMiddleware. See the clickjacking protection documentation.

Auth

Settings for django.contrib.auth.

AUTHENTICATION_BACKENDS

デフォルト値: ['django.contrib.auth.backends.ModelBackend']

A list of authentication backend classes (as strings) to use when attempting to authenticate a user. See the authentication backends documentation for details.

AUTH_USER_MODEL

デフォルト値: 'auth.User'

User を表すために使うモデルです。Substituting a custom User model を参照してください。

警告

You cannot change the AUTH_USER_MODEL setting during the lifetime of a project (i.e. once you have made and migrated models that depend on it) without serious effort. It is intended to be set at the project start, and the model it refers to must be available in the first migration of the app that it lives in. See Substituting a custom User model for more details.

LOGIN_REDIRECT_URL

デフォルト値: '/accounts/profile/'

The URL where requests are redirected after login when the contrib.auth.login view gets no next parameter.

これは、例えば login_required() デコレータにより使用されます。

この設定は 名前付き URL パターン も受け入れます。これを使えば 2 箇所 (settings と URLconf) で URL を定義しなくて済むため、設定の重複を避けることができます。

LOGIN_URL

デフォルト値: '/accounts/login/'

ログインに対してリクエストがリダイレクトする先の URLで、特に login_required() デコレータで使われます。

この設定は 名前付き URL パターン も受け入れます。これを使えば 2 箇所 (settings と URLconf) で URL を定義しなくて済むため、設定の重複を避けることができます。

LOGOUT_REDIRECT_URL

デフォルト値: None

The URL where requests are redirected after a user logs out using LogoutView (if the view doesn't get a next_page argument).

If None, no redirect will be performed and the logout view will be rendered.

この設定は 名前付き URL パターン も受け入れます。これを使えば 2 箇所 (settings と URLconf) で URL を定義しなくて済むため、設定の重複を避けることができます。

PASSWORD_RESET_TIMEOUT_DAYS

デフォルト値: 3

The number of days a password reset link is valid for. Used by the django.contrib.auth password reset mechanism.

PASSWORD_HASHERS

See How Django stores passwords.

デフォルト値:

[
    'django.contrib.auth.hashers.PBKDF2PasswordHasher',
    'django.contrib.auth.hashers.PBKDF2SHA1PasswordHasher',
    'django.contrib.auth.hashers.Argon2PasswordHasher',
    'django.contrib.auth.hashers.BCryptSHA256PasswordHasher',
    'django.contrib.auth.hashers.BCryptPasswordHasher',
]

AUTH_PASSWORD_VALIDATORS

デフォルト値: [] (空のリスト)

The list of validators that are used to check the strength of user's passwords. See パスワードの妥当性検証 for more details. By default, no validation is performed and all passwords are accepted.

メッセージ

Settings for django.contrib.messages.

MESSAGE_LEVEL

デフォルト値: messages.INFO

Sets the minimum message level that will be recorded by the messages framework. See message levels for more details.

Important

If you override MESSAGE_LEVEL in your settings file and rely on any of the built-in constants, you must import the constants module directly to avoid the potential for circular imports, e.g.:

from django.contrib.messages import constants as message_constants
MESSAGE_LEVEL = message_constants.DEBUG

If desired, you may specify the numeric values for the constants directly according to the values in the above constants table.

MESSAGE_STORAGE

デフォルト値: 'django.contrib.messages.storage.fallback.FallbackStorage'

Controls where Django stores message data. Valid values are:

  • 'django.contrib.messages.storage.fallback.FallbackStorage'
  • 'django.contrib.messages.storage.session.SessionStorage'
  • 'django.contrib.messages.storage.cookie.CookieStorage'

See message storage backends for more details.

The backends that use cookies -- CookieStorage and FallbackStorage -- use the value of SESSION_COOKIE_DOMAIN, SESSION_COOKIE_SECURE and SESSION_COOKIE_HTTPONLY when setting their cookies.

MESSAGE_TAGS

デフォルト値:

{
    messages.DEBUG: 'debug',
    messages.INFO: 'info',
    messages.SUCCESS: 'success',
    messages.WARNING: 'warning',
    messages.ERROR: 'error',
}

This sets the mapping of message level to message tag, which is typically rendered as a CSS class in HTML. If you specify a value, it will extend the default. This means you only have to specify those values which you need to override. See メッセージを表示する above for more details.

Important

If you override MESSAGE_TAGS in your settings file and rely on any of the built-in constants, you must import the constants module directly to avoid the potential for circular imports, e.g.:

from django.contrib.messages import constants as message_constants
MESSAGE_TAGS = {message_constants.INFO: ''}

If desired, you may specify the numeric values for the constants directly according to the values in the above constants table.

セッション

Settings for django.contrib.sessions.

SESSION_CACHE_ALIAS

デフォルト値: 'default'

If you're using cache-based session storage, this selects the cache to use.

SESSION_ENGINE

デフォルト値: 'django.contrib.sessions.backends.db'

Controls where Django stores session data. Included engines are:

  • 'django.contrib.sessions.backends.db'
  • 'django.contrib.sessions.backends.file'
  • 'django.contrib.sessions.backends.cache'
  • 'django.contrib.sessions.backends.cached_db'
  • 'django.contrib.sessions.backends.signed_cookies'

See セッションエンジンを設定する for more details.

SESSION_EXPIRE_AT_BROWSER_CLOSE

デフォルト値: False

Whether to expire the session when the user closes their browser. See ブラウザ起動中のみ有効なセッション vs. 永続的なセッション.

SESSION_FILE_PATH

デフォルト値: None

If you're using file-based session storage, this sets the directory in which Django will store session data. When the default value (None) is used, Django will use the standard temporary directory for the system.

SESSION_SAVE_EVERY_REQUEST

デフォルト値: False

Whether to save the session data on every request. If this is False (default), then the session data will only be saved if it has been modified -- that is, if any of its dictionary values have been assigned or deleted. Empty sessions won't be created, even if this setting is active.

SESSION_SERIALIZER

デフォルト値: 'django.contrib.sessions.serializers.JSONSerializer'

Full import path of a serializer class to use for serializing session data. Included serializers are:

  • 'django.contrib.sessions.serializers.PickleSerializer'
  • 'django.contrib.sessions.serializers.JSONSerializer'

See セッションのシリアライズ for details, including a warning regarding possible remote code execution when using PickleSerializer.

サイト

Settings for django.contrib.sites.

SITE_ID

デフォルト値: 定義されていません

The ID, as an integer, of the current site in the django_site database table. This is used so that application data can hook into specific sites and a single database can manage content for multiple sites.

静的ファイル

Settings for django.contrib.staticfiles.

STATIC_ROOT

デフォルト値: None

The absolute path to the directory where collectstatic will collect static files for deployment.

Example: "/var/www/example.com/static/"

If the staticfiles contrib app is enabled (as in the default project template), the collectstatic management command will collect static files into this directory. See the how-to on managing static files for more details about usage.

警告

This should be an initially empty destination directory for collecting your static files from their permanent locations into one directory for ease of deployment; it is not a place to store your static files permanently. You should do that in directories that will be found by staticfiles’s finders, which by default, are 'static/' app sub-directories and any directories you include in STATICFILES_DIRS).

STATIC_URL

デフォルト値: None

URL to use when referring to static files located in STATIC_ROOT.

Example: "/static/" or "http://static.example.com/"

If not None, this will be used as the base path for asset definitions (the Media class) and the staticfiles app.

It must end in a slash if set to a non-empty value.

You may need to configure these files to be served in development and will definitely need to do so in production.

STATICFILES_DIRS

デフォルト値: [] (空のリスト)

This setting defines the additional locations the staticfiles app will traverse if the FileSystemFinder finder is enabled, e.g. if you use the collectstatic or findstatic management command or use the static file serving view.

This should be set to a list of strings that contain full paths to your additional files directory(ies) e.g.:

STATICFILES_DIRS = [
    "/home/special.polls.com/polls/static",
    "/home/polls.com/polls/static",
    "/opt/webfiles/common",
]

Note that these paths should use Unix-style forward slashes, even on Windows (e.g. "C:/Users/user/mysite/extra_static_content").

Prefixes (optional)

In case you want to refer to files in one of the locations with an additional namespace, you can optionally provide a prefix as (prefix, path) tuples, e.g.:

STATICFILES_DIRS = [
    # ...
    ("downloads", "/opt/webfiles/stats"),
]

For example, assuming you have STATIC_URL set to '/static/', the collectstatic management command would collect the "stats" files in a 'downloads' subdirectory of STATIC_ROOT.

This would allow you to refer to the local file '/opt/webfiles/stats/polls_20101022.tar.gz' with '/static/downloads/polls_20101022.tar.gz' in your templates, e.g.:

<a href="{% static "downloads/polls_20101022.tar.gz" %}">

STATICFILES_STORAGE

デフォルト値: 'django.contrib.staticfiles.storage.StaticFilesStorage'

The file storage engine to use when collecting static files with the collectstatic management command.

A ready-to-use instance of the storage backend defined in this setting can be found at django.contrib.staticfiles.storage.staticfiles_storage.

For an example, see クラウドサービスや CDN から静的ファイルを配信する.

STATICFILES_FINDERS

デフォルト値:

[
    'django.contrib.staticfiles.finders.FileSystemFinder',
    'django.contrib.staticfiles.finders.AppDirectoriesFinder',
]

The list of finder backends that know how to find static files in various locations.

The default will find files stored in the STATICFILES_DIRS setting (using django.contrib.staticfiles.finders.FileSystemFinder) and in a static subdirectory of each app (using django.contrib.staticfiles.finders.AppDirectoriesFinder). If multiple files with the same name are present, the first file that is found will be used.

One finder is disabled by default: django.contrib.staticfiles.finders.DefaultStorageFinder. If added to your STATICFILES_FINDERS setting, it will look for static files in the default file storage as defined by the DEFAULT_FILE_STORAGE setting.

注釈

When using the AppDirectoriesFinder finder, make sure your apps can be found by staticfiles. Simply add the app to the INSTALLED_APPS setting of your site.

Static file finders are currently considered a private interface, and this interface is thus undocumented.

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