フォームとフィールドの検証

Form validation happens when the data is cleaned. If you want to customize this process, there are various places to make changes, each one serving a different purpose. Three types of cleaning methods are run during form processing. These are normally executed when you call the is_valid() method on a form. There are other things that can also trigger cleaning and validation (accessing the errors attribute or calling full_clean() directly), but normally they won't be needed.

In general, any cleaning method can raise ValidationError if there is a problem with the data it is processing, passing the relevant information to the ValidationError constructor. See below for the best practice in raising ValidationError. If no ValidationError is raised, the method should return the cleaned (normalized) data as a Python object.

Most validation can be done using validators - simple helpers that can be reused easily. Validators are simple functions (or callables) that take a single argument and raise ValidationError on invalid input. Validators are run after the field's to_python and validate methods have been called.

Validation of a form is split into several steps, which can be customized or overridden:

  • The to_python() method on a Field is the first step in every validation. It coerces the value to a correct datatype and raises ValidationError if that is not possible. This method accepts the raw value from the widget and returns the converted value. For example, a FloatField will turn the data into a Python float or raise a ValidationError.

  • The validate() method on a Field handles field-specific validation that is not suitable for a validator. It takes a value that has been coerced to a correct datatype and raises ValidationError on any error. This method does not return anything and shouldn't alter the value. You should override it to handle validation logic that you can't or don't want to put in a validator.

  • The run_validators() method on a Field runs all of the field's validators and aggregates all the errors into a single ValidationError. You shouldn't need to override this method.

  • The clean() method on a Field subclass is responsible for running to_python(), validate(), and run_validators() in the correct order and propagating their errors. If, at any time, any of the methods raise ValidationError, the validation stops and that error is raised. This method returns the clean data, which is then inserted into the cleaned_data dictionary of the form.

  • The clean_<fieldname>() method is called on a form subclass -- where <fieldname> is replaced with the name of the form field attribute. This method does any cleaning that is specific to that particular attribute, unrelated to the type of field that it is. This method is not passed any parameters. You will need to look up the value of the field in self.cleaned_data and remember that it will be a Python object at this point, not the original string submitted in the form (it will be in cleaned_data because the general field clean() method, above, has already cleaned the data once).

    For example, if you wanted to validate that the contents of a CharField called serialnumber was unique, clean_serialnumber() would be the right place to do this. You don't need a specific field (it's just a CharField), but you want a formfield-specific piece of validation and, possibly, cleaning/normalizing the data.

    The return value of this method replaces the existing value in cleaned_data, so it must be the field's value from cleaned_data (even if this method didn't change it) or a new cleaned value.

  • The form subclass's clean() method can perform validation that requires access to multiple form fields. This is where you might put in checks such as "if field A is supplied, field B must contain a valid email address". This method can return a completely different dictionary if it wishes, which will be used as the cleaned_data.

    Since the field validation methods have been run by the time clean() is called, you also have access to the form's errors attribute which contains all the errors raised by cleaning of individual fields.

    Note that any errors raised by your Form.clean() override will not be associated with any field in particular. They go into a special "field" (called __all__), which you can access via the non_field_errors() method if you need to. If you want to attach errors to a specific field in the form, you need to call add_error().

    Also note that there are special considerations when overriding the clean() method of a ModelForm subclass. (see the ModelForm documentation for more information)

These methods are run in the order given above, one field at a time. That is, for each field in the form (in the order they are declared in the form definition), the Field.clean() method (or its override) is run, then clean_<fieldname>(). Finally, once those two methods are run for every field, the Form.clean() method, or its override, is executed whether or not the previous methods have raised errors.

Examples of each of these methods are provided below.

As mentioned, any of these methods can raise a ValidationError. For any field, if the Field.clean() method raises a ValidationError, any field-specific cleaning method is not called. However, the cleaning methods for all remaining fields are still executed.

ValidationError を発生させる

エラーメッセージを柔軟かつ簡単にオーバーライドできるようにするため、以下のガイドラインを検討してください:

  • 説明のための code をコンストラクタに渡します:

    # Good
    ValidationError(_('Invalid value'), code='invalid')
    
    # Bad
    ValidationError(_('Invalid value'))
    
  • メッセージには変数を強制しません; プレースホルダとコンストラクタの params 引数を使用します:

    # Good
    ValidationError(
        _('Invalid value: %(value)s'),
        params={'value': '42'},
    )
    
    # Bad
    ValidationError(_('Invalid value: %s') % value)
    
  • 位置指定ではなく、マッピングキーを使います。

    # Good
    ValidationError(
        _('Invalid value: %(value)s'),
        params={'value': '42'},
    )
    
    # Bad
    ValidationError(
        _('Invalid value: %s'),
        params=('42',),
    )
    
  • メッセージを gettext でラップし、翻訳できるようにします:

    # Good
    ValidationError(_('Invalid value'))
    
    # Bad
    ValidationError('Invalid value')
    

全てを一緒に記述すると以下のようになります:

raise ValidationError(
    _('Invalid value: %(value)s'),
    code='invalid',
    params={'value': '42'},
)

再利用可能なフォーム、フォームフィールド、モデルフィールドを記述した場合、特にこのガイドラインの遵守が必要となります。

推奨はされませんが、バリデーションチェーンの最後で (例えばフォームの clean() メソッド) エラーメッセージのオーバーライドを 決してしない ことが確かな場合は、より簡潔に記述することもできます:

ValidationError(_('Invalid value: %s') % value)

The Form.errors.as_data() and Form.errors.as_json() methods greatly benefit from fully featured ValidationErrors (with a code name and a params dictionary).

複数のエラーを起こす

If you detect multiple errors during a cleaning method and wish to signal all of them to the form submitter, it is possible to pass a list of errors to the ValidationError constructor.

As above, it is recommended to pass a list of ValidationError instances with codes and params but a list of strings will also work:

# Good
raise ValidationError([
    ValidationError(_('Error 1'), code='error1'),
    ValidationError(_('Error 2'), code='error2'),
])

# Bad
raise ValidationError([
    _('Error 1'),
    _('Error 2'),
])

実際にバリデーションを使用する

前のセクションでは、フォームに対する検証が一般にどのように働くかを説明しました。実際の使われ方を見た方が機能をよく理解できるということが往々にしてあります。ここでは、説明した各機能を使った一連の小さな使用例を説明します。

バリデータを使う

Django のフォーム (とモデル) フィールドは、バリデータと呼ばれるシンプルなユーティリティ関数とクラスの使用をサポートしています。バリデータは単純にカラブルオブジェクトか関数で、値を取って、値が有効な場合は何も返さず、無効な場合は exc:~django.core.exceptions.ValidationError を返します。フィールドの validators 引数を通してフィールドのコンストラクタに渡すことができます。もしくは、Field クラス自身で default_validators 属性を使って定義できます。

シンプルなバリデータはフィールドの内部で値を検証賞するために使用できます。Django の SlugField を見てみましょう:

from django.forms import CharField
from django.core import validators

class SlugField(CharField):
    default_validators = [validators.validate_slug]

見ての通り、SlugField はカスタマイズされたバリデータを伴う CharField で、このバリデータは送信されたテキストがいくつかの文字列ルールに従うかどうかを検証します。これはフィールド定義においても実装可能です:

slug = forms.SlugField()

これは以下と同じです:

slug = forms.CharField(validators=[validators.validate_slug])

一般的なケース (例えば、E メールや正規表現に対する検証) は、Django が提供する既存のバリデータクラスを使って処理できます。例えば、validators.validate_slugRegexValidator の第 1 引数をパターン ^[-a-zA-Z0-9_]+$ としたインスタンスです。バリデータを記述する のセクションを参照して、利用可能なバリデータのリストとバリデータの記述方法の例を確認できます。

フォームフィールドのデフォルトのクリーニング

Let's first create a custom form field that validates its input is a string containing comma-separated email addresses. The full class looks like this:

from django import forms
from django.core.validators import validate_email

class MultiEmailField(forms.Field):
    def to_python(self, value):
        """Normalize data to a list of strings."""
        # Return an empty list if no input was given.
        if not value:
            return []
        return value.split(',')

    def validate(self, value):
        """Check if value consists only of valid emails."""
        # Use the parent's handling of required fields, etc.
        super().validate(value)
        for email in value:
            validate_email(email)

Every form that uses this field will have these methods run before anything else can be done with the field's data. This is cleaning that is specific to this type of field, regardless of how it is subsequently used.

Let's create a simple ContactForm to demonstrate how you'd use this field:

class ContactForm(forms.Form):
    subject = forms.CharField(max_length=100)
    message = forms.CharField()
    sender = forms.EmailField()
    recipients = MultiEmailField()
    cc_myself = forms.BooleanField(required=False)

Simply use MultiEmailField like any other form field. When the is_valid() method is called on the form, the MultiEmailField.clean() method will be run as part of the cleaning process and it will, in turn, call the custom to_python() and validate() methods.

特定のフィールド属性をクリーニングする

Continuing on from the previous example, suppose that in our ContactForm, we want to make sure that the recipients field always contains the address "fred@example.com". This is validation that is specific to our form, so we don't want to put it into the general MultiEmailField class. Instead, we write a cleaning method that operates on the recipients field, like so:

from django import forms

class ContactForm(forms.Form):
    # Everything as before.
    ...

    def clean_recipients(self):
        data = self.cleaned_data['recipients']
        if "fred@example.com" not in data:
            raise forms.ValidationError("You have forgotten about Fred!")

        # Always return a value to use as the new cleaned data, even if
        # this method didn't change it.
        return data

互いに依存するフィールドをクリーニングして検証する

Suppose we add another requirement to our contact form: if the cc_myself field is True, the subject must contain the word "help". We are performing validation on more than one field at a time, so the form's clean() method is a good spot to do this. Notice that we are talking about the clean() method on the form here, whereas earlier we were writing a clean() method on a field. It's important to keep the field and form difference clear when working out where to validate things. Fields are single data points, forms are a collection of fields.

By the time the form's clean() method is called, all the individual field clean methods will have been run (the previous two sections), so self.cleaned_data will be populated with any data that has survived so far. So you also need to remember to allow for the fact that the fields you are wanting to validate might not have survived the initial individual field checks.

There are two ways to report any errors from this step. Probably the most common method is to display the error at the top of the form. To create such an error, you can raise a ValidationError from the clean() method. For example:

from django import forms

class ContactForm(forms.Form):
    # Everything as before.
    ...

    def clean(self):
        cleaned_data = super().clean()
        cc_myself = cleaned_data.get("cc_myself")
        subject = cleaned_data.get("subject")

        if cc_myself and subject:
            # Only do something if both fields are valid so far.
            if "help" not in subject:
                raise forms.ValidationError(
                    "Did not send for 'help' in the subject despite "
                    "CC'ing yourself."
                )

In this code, if the validation error is raised, the form will display an error message at the top of the form (normally) describing the problem.

The call to super().clean() in the example code ensures that any validation logic in parent classes is maintained. If your form inherits another that doesn't return a cleaned_data dictionary in its clean() method (doing so is optional), then don't assign cleaned_data to the result of the super() call and use self.cleaned_data instead:

def clean(self):
    super().clean()
    cc_myself = self.cleaned_data.get("cc_myself")
    ...

The second approach for reporting validation errors might involve assigning the error message to one of the fields. In this case, let's assign an error message to both the "subject" and "cc_myself" rows in the form display. Be careful when doing this in practice, since it can lead to confusing form output. We're showing what is possible here and leaving it up to you and your designers to work out what works effectively in your particular situation. Our new code (replacing the previous sample) looks like this:

from django import forms

class ContactForm(forms.Form):
    # Everything as before.
    ...

    def clean(self):
        cleaned_data = super().clean()
        cc_myself = cleaned_data.get("cc_myself")
        subject = cleaned_data.get("subject")

        if cc_myself and subject and "help" not in subject:
            msg = "Must put 'help' in subject when cc'ing yourself."
            self.add_error('cc_myself', msg)
            self.add_error('subject', msg)

The second argument of add_error() can be a simple string, or preferably an instance of ValidationError. See ValidationError を発生させる for more details. Note that add_error() automatically removes the field from cleaned_data.

Back to Top