• Language: en

Source code for django.db.models.expressions

import copy
import datetime
from decimal import Decimal

from django.core.exceptions import EmptyResultSet, FieldError
from django.db import connection
from django.db.models import fields
from django.db.models.query_utils import Q
from django.utils.deconstruct import deconstructible
from django.utils.functional import cached_property


class SQLiteNumericMixin:
    """
    Some expressions with output_field=DecimalField() must be cast to
    numeric to be properly filtered.
    """
    def as_sqlite(self, compiler, connection, **extra_context):
        sql, params = self.as_sql(compiler, connection, **extra_context)
        try:
            if self.output_field.get_internal_type() == 'DecimalField':
                sql = 'CAST(%s AS NUMERIC)' % sql
        except FieldError:
            pass
        return sql, params


class Combinable:
    """
    Provide the ability to combine one or two objects with
    some connector. For example F('foo') + F('bar').
    """

    # Arithmetic connectors
    ADD = '+'
    SUB = '-'
    MUL = '*'
    DIV = '/'
    POW = '^'
    # The following is a quoted % operator - it is quoted because it can be
    # used in strings that also have parameter substitution.
    MOD = '%%'

    # Bitwise operators - note that these are generated by .bitand()
    # and .bitor(), the '&' and '|' are reserved for boolean operator
    # usage.
    BITAND = '&'
    BITOR = '|'
    BITLEFTSHIFT = '<<'
    BITRIGHTSHIFT = '>>'

    def _combine(self, other, connector, reversed):
        if not hasattr(other, 'resolve_expression'):
            # everything must be resolvable to an expression
            if isinstance(other, datetime.timedelta):
                other = DurationValue(other, output_field=fields.DurationField())
            else:
                other = Value(other)

        if reversed:
            return CombinedExpression(other, connector, self)
        return CombinedExpression(self, connector, other)

    #############
    # OPERATORS #
    #############

    def __add__(self, other):
        return self._combine(other, self.ADD, False)

    def __sub__(self, other):
        return self._combine(other, self.SUB, False)

    def __mul__(self, other):
        return self._combine(other, self.MUL, False)

    def __truediv__(self, other):
        return self._combine(other, self.DIV, False)

    def __mod__(self, other):
        return self._combine(other, self.MOD, False)

    def __pow__(self, other):
        return self._combine(other, self.POW, False)

    def __and__(self, other):
        raise NotImplementedError(
            "Use .bitand() and .bitor() for bitwise logical operations."
        )

    def bitand(self, other):
        return self._combine(other, self.BITAND, False)

    def bitleftshift(self, other):
        return self._combine(other, self.BITLEFTSHIFT, False)

    def bitrightshift(self, other):
        return self._combine(other, self.BITRIGHTSHIFT, False)

    def __or__(self, other):
        raise NotImplementedError(
            "Use .bitand() and .bitor() for bitwise logical operations."
        )

    def bitor(self, other):
        return self._combine(other, self.BITOR, False)

    def __radd__(self, other):
        return self._combine(other, self.ADD, True)

    def __rsub__(self, other):
        return self._combine(other, self.SUB, True)

    def __rmul__(self, other):
        return self._combine(other, self.MUL, True)

    def __rtruediv__(self, other):
        return self._combine(other, self.DIV, True)

    def __rmod__(self, other):
        return self._combine(other, self.MOD, True)

    def __rpow__(self, other):
        return self._combine(other, self.POW, True)

    def __rand__(self, other):
        raise NotImplementedError(
            "Use .bitand() and .bitor() for bitwise logical operations."
        )

    def __ror__(self, other):
        raise NotImplementedError(
            "Use .bitand() and .bitor() for bitwise logical operations."
        )


@deconstructible
class BaseExpression:
    """Base class for all query expressions."""

    # aggregate specific fields
    is_summary = False
    _output_field_resolved_to_none = False
    # Can the expression be used in a WHERE clause?
    filterable = True
    # Can the expression can be used as a source expression in Window?
    window_compatible = False

    def __init__(self, output_field=None):
        if output_field is not None:
            self.output_field = output_field

    def get_db_converters(self, connection):
        return (
            []
            if self.convert_value is self._convert_value_noop else
            [self.convert_value]
        ) + self.output_field.get_db_converters(connection)

    def get_source_expressions(self):
        return []

    def set_source_expressions(self, exprs):
        assert not exprs

    def _parse_expressions(self, *expressions):
        return [
            arg if hasattr(arg, 'resolve_expression') else (
                F(arg) if isinstance(arg, str) else Value(arg)
            ) for arg in expressions
        ]

    def as_sql(self, compiler, connection):
        """
        Responsible for returning a (sql, [params]) tuple to be included
        in the current query.

        Different backends can provide their own implementation, by
        providing an `as_{vendor}` method and patching the Expression:

        ```
        def override_as_sql(self, compiler, connection):
            # custom logic
            return super().as_sql(compiler, connection)
        setattr(Expression, 'as_' + connection.vendor, override_as_sql)
        ```

        Arguments:
         * compiler: the query compiler responsible for generating the query.
           Must have a compile method, returning a (sql, [params]) tuple.
           Calling compiler(value) will return a quoted `value`.

         * connection: the database connection used for the current query.

        Return: (sql, params)
          Where `sql` is a string containing ordered sql parameters to be
          replaced with the elements of the list `params`.
        """
        raise NotImplementedError("Subclasses must implement as_sql()")

    @cached_property
    def contains_aggregate(self):
        for expr in self.get_source_expressions():
            if expr and expr.contains_aggregate:
                return True
        return False

    @cached_property
    def contains_over_clause(self):
        for expr in self.get_source_expressions():
            if expr and expr.contains_over_clause:
                return True
        return False

    @cached_property
    def contains_column_references(self):
        for expr in self.get_source_expressions():
            if expr and expr.contains_column_references:
                return True
        return False

    def resolve_expression(self, query=None, allow_joins=True, reuse=None, summarize=False, for_save=False):
        """
        Provide the chance to do any preprocessing or validation before being
        added to the query.

        Arguments:
         * query: the backend query implementation
         * allow_joins: boolean allowing or denying use of joins
           in this query
         * reuse: a set of reusable joins for multijoins
         * summarize: a terminal aggregate clause
         * for_save: whether this expression about to be used in a save or update

        Return: an Expression to be added to the query.
        """
        c = self.copy()
        c.is_summary = summarize
        c.set_source_expressions([
            expr.resolve_expression(query, allow_joins, reuse, summarize)
            if expr else None
            for expr in c.get_source_expressions()
        ])
        return c

    def _prepare(self, field):
        """Hook used by Lookup.get_prep_lookup() to do custom preparation."""
        return self

    @property
    def field(self):
        return self.output_field

    @cached_property
    def output_field(self):
        """Return the output type of this expressions."""
        output_field = self._resolve_output_field()
        if output_field is None:
            self._output_field_resolved_to_none = True
            raise FieldError('Cannot resolve expression type, unknown output_field')
        return output_field

    @cached_property
    def _output_field_or_none(self):
        """
        Return the output field of this expression, or None if
        _resolve_output_field() didn't return an output type.
        """
        try:
            return self.output_field
        except FieldError:
            if not self._output_field_resolved_to_none:
                raise

    def _resolve_output_field(self):
        """
        Attempt to infer the output type of the expression. If the output
        fields of all source fields match then, simply infer the same type
        here. This isn't always correct, but it makes sense most of the time.

        Consider the difference between `2 + 2` and `2 / 3`. Inferring
        the type here is a convenience for the common case. The user should
        supply their own output_field with more complex computations.

        If a source's output field resolves to None, exclude it from this check.
        If all sources are None, then an error is raised higher up the stack in
        the output_field property.
        """
        sources_iter = (source for source in self.get_source_fields() if source is not None)
        for output_field in sources_iter:
            if any(not isinstance(output_field, source.__class__) for source in sources_iter):
                raise FieldError('Expression contains mixed types. You must set output_field.')
            return output_field

    @staticmethod
    def _convert_value_noop(value, expression, connection):
        return value

    @cached_property
    def convert_value(self):
        """
        Expressions provide their own converters because users have the option
        of manually specifying the output_field which may be a different type
        from the one the database returns.
        """
        field = self.output_field
        internal_type = field.get_internal_type()
        if internal_type == 'FloatField':
            return lambda value, expression, connection: None if value is None else float(value)
        elif internal_type.endswith('IntegerField'):
            return lambda value, expression, connection: None if value is None else int(value)
        elif internal_type == 'DecimalField':
            return lambda value, expression, connection: None if value is None else Decimal(value)
        return self._convert_value_noop

    def get_lookup(self, lookup):
        return self.output_field.get_lookup(lookup)

    def get_transform(self, name):
        return self.output_field.get_transform(name)

    def relabeled_clone(self, change_map):
        clone = self.copy()
        clone.set_source_expressions(
            [e.relabeled_clone(change_map) for e in self.get_source_expressions()])
        return clone

    def copy(self):
        return copy.copy(self)

    def get_group_by_cols(self):
        if not self.contains_aggregate:
            return [self]
        cols = []
        for source in self.get_source_expressions():
            cols.extend(source.get_group_by_cols())
        return cols

    def get_source_fields(self):
        """Return the underlying field types used by this aggregate."""
        return [e._output_field_or_none for e in self.get_source_expressions()]

    def asc(self, **kwargs):
        return OrderBy(self, **kwargs)

    def desc(self, **kwargs):
        return OrderBy(self, descending=True, **kwargs)

    def reverse_ordering(self):
        return self

    def flatten(self):
        """
        Recursively yield this expression and all subexpressions, in
        depth-first order.
        """
        yield self
        for expr in self.get_source_expressions():
            if expr:
                yield from expr.flatten()

    def __eq__(self, other):
        if self.__class__ != other.__class__:
            return False
        path, args, kwargs = self.deconstruct()
        other_path, other_args, other_kwargs = other.deconstruct()
        if (path, args) == (other_path, other_args):
            kwargs = kwargs.copy()
            other_kwargs = other_kwargs.copy()
            output_field = type(kwargs.pop('output_field', None))
            other_output_field = type(other_kwargs.pop('output_field', None))
            if output_field == other_output_field:
                return kwargs == other_kwargs
        return False

    def __hash__(self):
        path, args, kwargs = self.deconstruct()
        return hash((path,) + args + tuple(kwargs.items()))


[docs]class Expression(BaseExpression, Combinable): """An expression that can be combined with other expressions.""" pass
class CombinedExpression(SQLiteNumericMixin, Expression): def __init__(self, lhs, connector, rhs, output_field=None): super().__init__(output_field=output_field) self.connector = connector self.lhs = lhs self.rhs = rhs def __repr__(self): return "<{}: {}>".format(self.__class__.__name__, self) def __str__(self): return "{} {} {}".format(self.lhs, self.connector, self.rhs) def get_source_expressions(self): return [self.lhs, self.rhs] def set_source_expressions(self, exprs): self.lhs, self.rhs = exprs def as_sql(self, compiler, connection): try: lhs_output = self.lhs.output_field except FieldError: lhs_output = None try: rhs_output = self.rhs.output_field except FieldError: rhs_output = None if (not connection.features.has_native_duration_field and ((lhs_output and lhs_output.get_internal_type() == 'DurationField') or (rhs_output and rhs_output.get_internal_type() == 'DurationField'))): return DurationExpression(self.lhs, self.connector, self.rhs).as_sql(compiler, connection) if (lhs_output and rhs_output and self.connector == self.SUB and lhs_output.get_internal_type() in {'DateField', 'DateTimeField', 'TimeField'} and lhs_output.get_internal_type() == rhs_output.get_internal_type()): return TemporalSubtraction(self.lhs, self.rhs).as_sql(compiler, connection) expressions = [] expression_params = [] sql, params = compiler.compile(self.lhs) expressions.append(sql) expression_params.extend(params) sql, params = compiler.compile(self.rhs) expressions.append(sql) expression_params.extend(params) # order of precedence expression_wrapper = '(%s)' sql = connection.ops.combine_expression(self.connector, expressions) return expression_wrapper % sql, expression_params def resolve_expression(self, query=None, allow_joins=True, reuse=None, summarize=False, for_save=False): c = self.copy() c.is_summary = summarize c.lhs = c.lhs.resolve_expression(query, allow_joins, reuse, summarize, for_save) c.rhs = c.rhs.resolve_expression(query, allow_joins, reuse, summarize, for_save) return c class DurationExpression(CombinedExpression): def compile(self, side, compiler, connection): if not isinstance(side, DurationValue): try: output = side.output_field except FieldError: pass else: if output.get_internal_type() == 'DurationField': sql, params = compiler.compile(side) return connection.ops.format_for_duration_arithmetic(sql), params return compiler.compile(side) def as_sql(self, compiler, connection): connection.ops.check_expression_support(self) expressions = [] expression_params = [] sql, params = self.compile(self.lhs, compiler, connection) expressions.append(sql) expression_params.extend(params) sql, params = self.compile(self.rhs, compiler, connection) expressions.append(sql) expression_params.extend(params) # order of precedence expression_wrapper = '(%s)' sql = connection.ops.combine_duration_expression(self.connector, expressions) return expression_wrapper % sql, expression_params class TemporalSubtraction(CombinedExpression): output_field = fields.DurationField() def __init__(self, lhs, rhs): super().__init__(lhs, self.SUB, rhs) def as_sql(self, compiler, connection): connection.ops.check_expression_support(self) lhs = compiler.compile(self.lhs, connection) rhs = compiler.compile(self.rhs, connection) return connection.ops.subtract_temporals(self.lhs.output_field.get_internal_type(), lhs, rhs)
[docs]@deconstructible class F(Combinable): """An object capable of resolving references to existing query objects.""" # Can the expression be used in a WHERE clause? filterable = True def __init__(self, name): """ Arguments: * name: the name of the field this expression references """ self.name = name def __repr__(self): return "{}({})".format(self.__class__.__name__, self.name) def resolve_expression(self, query=None, allow_joins=True, reuse=None, summarize=False, for_save=False): return query.resolve_ref(self.name, allow_joins, reuse, summarize) def asc(self, **kwargs): return OrderBy(self, **kwargs) def desc(self, **kwargs): return OrderBy(self, descending=True, **kwargs) def __eq__(self, other): return self.__class__ == other.__class__ and self.name == other.name def __hash__(self): return hash(self.name)
class ResolvedOuterRef(F): """ An object that contains a reference to an outer query. In this case, the reference to the outer query has been resolved because the inner query has been used as a subquery. """ def as_sql(self, *args, **kwargs): raise ValueError( 'This queryset contains a reference to an outer query and may ' 'only be used in a subquery.' ) def _prepare(self, output_field=None): return self
[docs]class OuterRef(F): def resolve_expression(self, query=None, allow_joins=True, reuse=None, summarize=False, for_save=False): if isinstance(self.name, self.__class__): return self.name return ResolvedOuterRef(self.name) def _prepare(self, output_field=None): return self
[docs]class Func(SQLiteNumericMixin, Expression): """An SQL function call.""" function = None template = '%(function)s(%(expressions)s)' arg_joiner = ', ' arity = None # The number of arguments the function accepts. def __init__(self, *expressions, output_field=None, **extra): if self.arity is not None and len(expressions) != self.arity: raise TypeError( "'%s' takes exactly %s %s (%s given)" % ( self.__class__.__name__, self.arity, "argument" if self.arity == 1 else "arguments", len(expressions), ) ) super().__init__(output_field=output_field) self.source_expressions = self._parse_expressions(*expressions) self.extra = extra def __repr__(self): args = self.arg_joiner.join(str(arg) for arg in self.source_expressions) extra = {**self.extra, **self._get_repr_options()} if extra: extra = ', '.join(str(key) + '=' + str(val) for key, val in sorted(extra.items())) return "{}({}, {})".format(self.__class__.__name__, args, extra) return "{}({})".format(self.__class__.__name__, args) def _get_repr_options(self): """Return a dict of extra __init__() options to include in the repr.""" return {} def get_source_expressions(self): return self.source_expressions def set_source_expressions(self, exprs): self.source_expressions = exprs def resolve_expression(self, query=None, allow_joins=True, reuse=None, summarize=False, for_save=False): c = self.copy() c.is_summary = summarize for pos, arg in enumerate(c.source_expressions): c.source_expressions[pos] = arg.resolve_expression(query, allow_joins, reuse, summarize, for_save) return c
[docs] def as_sql(self, compiler, connection, function=None, template=None, arg_joiner=None, **extra_context): connection.ops.check_expression_support(self) sql_parts = [] params = [] for arg in self.source_expressions: arg_sql, arg_params = compiler.compile(arg) sql_parts.append(arg_sql) params.extend(arg_params) data = {**self.extra, **extra_context} # Use the first supplied value in this order: the parameter to this # method, a value supplied in __init__()'s **extra (the value in # `data`), or the value defined on the class. if function is not None: data['function'] = function else: data.setdefault('function', self.function) template = template or data.get('template', self.template) arg_joiner = arg_joiner or data.get('arg_joiner', self.arg_joiner) data['expressions'] = data['field'] = arg_joiner.join(sql_parts) return template % data, params
def copy(self): copy = super().copy() copy.source_expressions = self.source_expressions[:] copy.extra = self.extra.copy() return copy
[docs]class Value(Expression): """Represent a wrapped value as a node within an expression.""" def __init__(self, value, output_field=None): """ Arguments: * value: the value this expression represents. The value will be added into the sql parameter list and properly quoted. * output_field: an instance of the model field type that this expression will return, such as IntegerField() or CharField(). """ super().__init__(output_field=output_field) self.value = value def __repr__(self): return "{}({})".format(self.__class__.__name__, self.value) def as_sql(self, compiler, connection): connection.ops.check_expression_support(self) val = self.value output_field = self._output_field_or_none if output_field is not None: if self.for_save: val = output_field.get_db_prep_save(val, connection=connection) else: val = output_field.get_db_prep_value(val, connection=connection) if hasattr(output_field, 'get_placeholder'): return output_field.get_placeholder(val, compiler, connection), [val] if val is None: # cx_Oracle does not always convert None to the appropriate # NULL type (like in case expressions using numbers), so we # use a literal SQL NULL return 'NULL', [] return '%s', [val] def resolve_expression(self, query=None, allow_joins=True, reuse=None, summarize=False, for_save=False): c = super().resolve_expression(query, allow_joins, reuse, summarize, for_save) c.for_save = for_save return c def get_group_by_cols(self): return []
class DurationValue(Value): def as_sql(self, compiler, connection): connection.ops.check_expression_support(self) if connection.features.has_native_duration_field: return super().as_sql(compiler, connection) return connection.ops.date_interval_sql(self.value), []
[docs]class RawSQL(Expression): def __init__(self, sql, params, output_field=None): if output_field is None: output_field = fields.Field() self.sql, self.params = sql, params super().__init__(output_field=output_field) def __repr__(self): return "{}({}, {})".format(self.__class__.__name__, self.sql, self.params) def as_sql(self, compiler, connection): return '(%s)' % self.sql, self.params def get_group_by_cols(self): return [self] def __hash__(self): return hash((self.sql, self.output_field) + tuple(self.params))
class Star(Expression): def __repr__(self): return "'*'" def as_sql(self, compiler, connection): return '*', [] class Random(Expression): output_field = fields.FloatField() def __repr__(self): return "Random()" def as_sql(self, compiler, connection): return connection.ops.random_function_sql(), [] class Col(Expression): contains_column_references = True def __init__(self, alias, target, output_field=None): if output_field is None: output_field = target super().__init__(output_field=output_field) self.alias, self.target = alias, target def __repr__(self): return "{}({}, {})".format( self.__class__.__name__, self.alias, self.target) def as_sql(self, compiler, connection): qn = compiler.quote_name_unless_alias return "%s.%s" % (qn(self.alias), qn(self.target.column)), [] def relabeled_clone(self, relabels): return self.__class__(relabels.get(self.alias, self.alias), self.target, self.output_field) def get_group_by_cols(self): return [self] def get_db_converters(self, connection): if self.target == self.output_field: return self.output_field.get_db_converters(connection) return (self.output_field.get_db_converters(connection) + self.target.get_db_converters(connection)) class Ref(Expression): """ Reference to column alias of the query. For example, Ref('sum_cost') in qs.annotate(sum_cost=Sum('cost')) query. """ def __init__(self, refs, source): super().__init__() self.refs, self.source = refs, source def __repr__(self): return "{}({}, {})".format(self.__class__.__name__, self.refs, self.source) def get_source_expressions(self): return [self.source] def set_source_expressions(self, exprs): self.source, = exprs def resolve_expression(self, query=None, allow_joins=True, reuse=None, summarize=False, for_save=False): # The sub-expression `source` has already been resolved, as this is # just a reference to the name of `source`. return self def relabeled_clone(self, relabels): return self def as_sql(self, compiler, connection): return "%s" % connection.ops.quote_name(self.refs), [] def get_group_by_cols(self): return [self] class ExpressionList(Func): """ An expression containing multiple expressions. Can be used to provide a list of expressions as an argument to another expression, like an ordering clause. """ template = '%(expressions)s' def __init__(self, *expressions, **extra): if not expressions: raise ValueError('%s requires at least one expression.' % self.__class__.__name__) super().__init__(*expressions, **extra) def __str__(self): return self.arg_joiner.join(str(arg) for arg in self.source_expressions)
[docs]class ExpressionWrapper(Expression): """ An expression that can wrap another expression so that it can provide extra context to the inner expression, such as the output_field. """ def __init__(self, expression, output_field): super().__init__(output_field=output_field) self.expression = expression def set_source_expressions(self, exprs): self.expression = exprs[0] def get_source_expressions(self): return [self.expression] def as_sql(self, compiler, connection): return self.expression.as_sql(compiler, connection) def __repr__(self): return "{}({})".format(self.__class__.__name__, self.expression)
[docs]class When(Expression): template = 'WHEN %(condition)s THEN %(result)s' def __init__(self, condition=None, then=None, **lookups): if lookups and condition is None: condition, lookups = Q(**lookups), None if condition is None or not getattr(condition, 'conditional', False) or lookups: raise TypeError("__init__() takes either a Q object or lookups as keyword arguments") super().__init__(output_field=None) self.condition = condition self.result = self._parse_expressions(then)[0] def __str__(self): return "WHEN %r THEN %r" % (self.condition, self.result) def __repr__(self): return "<%s: %s>" % (self.__class__.__name__, self) def get_source_expressions(self): return [self.condition, self.result] def set_source_expressions(self, exprs): self.condition, self.result = exprs def get_source_fields(self): # We're only interested in the fields of the result expressions. return [self.result._output_field_or_none] def resolve_expression(self, query=None, allow_joins=True, reuse=None, summarize=False, for_save=False): c = self.copy() c.is_summary = summarize if hasattr(c.condition, 'resolve_expression'): c.condition = c.condition.resolve_expression(query, allow_joins, reuse, summarize, False) c.result = c.result.resolve_expression(query, allow_joins, reuse, summarize, for_save) return c def as_sql(self, compiler, connection, template=None, **extra_context): connection.ops.check_expression_support(self) template_params = extra_context sql_params = [] condition_sql, condition_params = compiler.compile(self.condition) template_params['condition'] = condition_sql sql_params.extend(condition_params) result_sql, result_params = compiler.compile(self.result) template_params['result'] = result_sql sql_params.extend(result_params) template = template or self.template return template % template_params, sql_params def get_group_by_cols(self): # This is not a complete expression and cannot be used in GROUP BY. cols = [] for source in self.get_source_expressions(): cols.extend(source.get_group_by_cols()) return cols
[docs]class Case(Expression): """ An SQL searched CASE expression: CASE WHEN n > 0 THEN 'positive' WHEN n < 0 THEN 'negative' ELSE 'zero' END """ template = 'CASE %(cases)s ELSE %(default)s END' case_joiner = ' ' def __init__(self, *cases, default=None, output_field=None, **extra): if not all(isinstance(case, When) for case in cases): raise TypeError("Positional arguments must all be When objects.") super().__init__(output_field) self.cases = list(cases) self.default = self._parse_expressions(default)[0] self.extra = extra def __str__(self): return "CASE %s, ELSE %r" % (', '.join(str(c) for c in self.cases), self.default) def __repr__(self): return "<%s: %s>" % (self.__class__.__name__, self) def get_source_expressions(self): return self.cases + [self.default] def set_source_expressions(self, exprs): self.cases = exprs[:-1] self.default = exprs[-1] def resolve_expression(self, query=None, allow_joins=True, reuse=None, summarize=False, for_save=False): c = self.copy() c.is_summary = summarize for pos, case in enumerate(c.cases): c.cases[pos] = case.resolve_expression(query, allow_joins, reuse, summarize, for_save) c.default = c.default.resolve_expression(query, allow_joins, reuse, summarize, for_save) return c def copy(self): c = super().copy() c.cases = c.cases[:] return c def as_sql(self, compiler, connection, template=None, case_joiner=None, **extra_context): connection.ops.check_expression_support(self) if not self.cases: return compiler.compile(self.default) template_params = {**self.extra, **extra_context} case_parts = [] sql_params = [] for case in self.cases: try: case_sql, case_params = compiler.compile(case) except EmptyResultSet: continue case_parts.append(case_sql) sql_params.extend(case_params) default_sql, default_params = compiler.compile(self.default) if not case_parts: return default_sql, default_params case_joiner = case_joiner or self.case_joiner template_params['cases'] = case_joiner.join(case_parts) template_params['default'] = default_sql sql_params.extend(default_params) template = template or template_params.get('template', self.template) sql = template % template_params if self._output_field_or_none is not None: sql = connection.ops.unification_cast_sql(self.output_field) % sql return sql, sql_params
[docs]class Subquery(Expression): """ An explicit subquery. It may contain OuterRef() references to the outer query which will be resolved when it is applied to that query. """ template = '(%(subquery)s)' def __init__(self, queryset, output_field=None, **extra): self.queryset = queryset self.extra = extra if output_field is None and len(self.queryset.query.select) == 1: output_field = self.queryset.query.select[0].field super().__init__(output_field) def copy(self): clone = super().copy() clone.queryset = clone.queryset.all() return clone def resolve_expression(self, query=None, allow_joins=True, reuse=None, summarize=False, for_save=False): clone = self.copy() clone.is_summary = summarize clone.queryset.query.bump_prefix(query) # Need to recursively resolve these. def resolve_all(child): if hasattr(child, 'children'): [resolve_all(_child) for _child in child.children] if hasattr(child, 'rhs'): child.rhs = resolve(child.rhs) def resolve(child): if hasattr(child, 'resolve_expression'): resolved = child.resolve_expression( query=query, allow_joins=allow_joins, reuse=reuse, summarize=summarize, for_save=for_save, ) # Add table alias to the parent query's aliases to prevent # quoting. if hasattr(resolved, 'alias') and resolved.alias != resolved.target.model._meta.db_table: clone.queryset.query.external_aliases.add(resolved.alias) return resolved return child resolve_all(clone.queryset.query.where) for key, value in clone.queryset.query.annotations.items(): if isinstance(value, Subquery): clone.queryset.query.annotations[key] = resolve(value) return clone def get_source_expressions(self): return [ x for x in [ getattr(expr, 'lhs', None) for expr in self.queryset.query.where.children ] if x ] def relabeled_clone(self, change_map): clone = self.copy() clone.queryset.query = clone.queryset.query.relabeled_clone(change_map) clone.queryset.query.external_aliases.update( alias for alias in change_map.values() if alias not in clone.queryset.query.alias_map ) return clone def as_sql(self, compiler, connection, template=None, **extra_context): connection.ops.check_expression_support(self) template_params = {**self.extra, **extra_context} template_params['subquery'], sql_params = self.queryset.query.get_compiler(connection=connection).as_sql() template = template or template_params.get('template', self.template) sql = template % template_params return sql, sql_params def _prepare(self, output_field): # This method will only be called if this instance is the "rhs" in an # expression: the wrapping () must be removed (as the expression that # contains this will provide them). SQLite evaluates ((subquery)) # differently than the other databases. if self.template == '(%(subquery)s)': clone = self.copy() clone.template = '%(subquery)s' return clone return self
[docs]class Exists(Subquery): template = 'EXISTS(%(subquery)s)' output_field = fields.BooleanField() def __init__(self, *args, negated=False, **kwargs): self.negated = negated super().__init__(*args, **kwargs) def __invert__(self): return type(self)(self.queryset, negated=(not self.negated), **self.extra) def resolve_expression(self, query=None, **kwargs): # As a performance optimization, remove ordering since EXISTS doesn't # care about it, just whether or not a row matches. self.queryset = self.queryset.order_by() return super().resolve_expression(query, **kwargs) def as_sql(self, compiler, connection, template=None, **extra_context): sql, params = super().as_sql(compiler, connection, template, **extra_context) if self.negated: sql = 'NOT {}'.format(sql) return sql, params def as_oracle(self, compiler, connection, template=None, **extra_context): # Oracle doesn't allow EXISTS() in the SELECT list, so wrap it with a # CASE WHEN expression. Change the template since the When expression # requires a left hand side (column) to compare against. sql, params = self.as_sql(compiler, connection, template, **extra_context) sql = 'CASE WHEN {} THEN 1 ELSE 0 END'.format(sql) return sql, params
class OrderBy(BaseExpression): template = '%(expression)s %(ordering)s' def __init__(self, expression, descending=False, nulls_first=False, nulls_last=False): if nulls_first and nulls_last: raise ValueError('nulls_first and nulls_last are mutually exclusive') self.nulls_first = nulls_first self.nulls_last = nulls_last self.descending = descending if not hasattr(expression, 'resolve_expression'): raise ValueError('expression must be an expression type') self.expression = expression def __repr__(self): return "{}({}, descending={})".format( self.__class__.__name__, self.expression, self.descending) def set_source_expressions(self, exprs): self.expression = exprs[0] def get_source_expressions(self): return [self.expression] def as_sql(self, compiler, connection, template=None, **extra_context): if not template: if self.nulls_last: template = '%s NULLS LAST' % self.template elif self.nulls_first: template = '%s NULLS FIRST' % self.template connection.ops.check_expression_support(self) expression_sql, params = compiler.compile(self.expression) placeholders = { 'expression': expression_sql, 'ordering': 'DESC' if self.descending else 'ASC', **extra_context, } template = template or self.template params *= template.count('%(expression)s') return (template % placeholders).rstrip(), params def as_sqlite(self, compiler, connection): template = None if self.nulls_last: template = '%(expression)s IS NULL, %(expression)s %(ordering)s' elif self.nulls_first: template = '%(expression)s IS NOT NULL, %(expression)s %(ordering)s' return self.as_sql(compiler, connection, template=template) def as_mysql(self, compiler, connection): template = None if self.nulls_last: template = 'IF(ISNULL(%(expression)s),1,0), %(expression)s %(ordering)s ' elif self.nulls_first: template = 'IF(ISNULL(%(expression)s),0,1), %(expression)s %(ordering)s ' return self.as_sql(compiler, connection, template=template) def get_group_by_cols(self): cols = [] for source in self.get_source_expressions(): cols.extend(source.get_group_by_cols()) return cols def reverse_ordering(self): self.descending = not self.descending if self.nulls_first or self.nulls_last: self.nulls_first = not self.nulls_first self.nulls_last = not self.nulls_last return self def asc(self): self.descending = False def desc(self): self.descending = True
[docs]class Window(Expression): template = '%(expression)s OVER (%(window)s)' # Although the main expression may either be an aggregate or an # expression with an aggregate function, the GROUP BY that will # be introduced in the query as a result is not desired. contains_aggregate = False contains_over_clause = True filterable = False def __init__(self, expression, partition_by=None, order_by=None, frame=None, output_field=None): self.partition_by = partition_by self.order_by = order_by self.frame = frame if not getattr(expression, 'window_compatible', False): raise ValueError( "Expression '%s' isn't compatible with OVER clauses." % expression.__class__.__name__ ) if self.partition_by is not None: if not isinstance(self.partition_by, (tuple, list)): self.partition_by = (self.partition_by,) self.partition_by = ExpressionList(*self.partition_by) if self.order_by is not None: if isinstance(self.order_by, (list, tuple)): self.order_by = ExpressionList(*self.order_by) elif not isinstance(self.order_by, BaseExpression): raise ValueError( 'order_by must be either an Expression or a sequence of ' 'expressions.' ) super().__init__(output_field=output_field) self.source_expression = self._parse_expressions(expression)[0] def _resolve_output_field(self): return self.source_expression.output_field def get_source_expressions(self): return [self.source_expression, self.partition_by, self.order_by, self.frame] def set_source_expressions(self, exprs): self.source_expression, self.partition_by, self.order_by, self.frame = exprs def as_sql(self, compiler, connection, function=None, template=None): connection.ops.check_expression_support(self) expr_sql, params = compiler.compile(self.source_expression) window_sql, window_params = [], [] if self.partition_by is not None: sql_expr, sql_params = self.partition_by.as_sql( compiler=compiler, connection=connection, template='PARTITION BY %(expressions)s', ) window_sql.extend(sql_expr) window_params.extend(sql_params) if self.order_by is not None: window_sql.append(' ORDER BY ') order_sql, order_params = compiler.compile(self.order_by) window_sql.extend(''.join(order_sql)) window_params.extend(order_params) if self.frame: frame_sql, frame_params = compiler.compile(self.frame) window_sql.extend(' ' + frame_sql) window_params.extend(frame_params) params.extend(window_params) template = template or self.template return template % { 'expression': expr_sql, 'window': ''.join(window_sql).strip() }, params def __str__(self): return '{} OVER ({}{}{})'.format( str(self.source_expression), 'PARTITION BY ' + str(self.partition_by) if self.partition_by else '', 'ORDER BY ' + str(self.order_by) if self.order_by else '', str(self.frame or ''), ) def __repr__(self): return '<%s: %s>' % (self.__class__.__name__, self) def get_group_by_cols(self): return []
class WindowFrame(Expression): """ Model the frame clause in window expressions. There are two types of frame clauses which are subclasses, however, all processing and validation (by no means intended to be complete) is done here. Thus, providing an end for a frame is optional (the default is UNBOUNDED FOLLOWING, which is the last row in the frame). """ template = '%(frame_type)s BETWEEN %(start)s AND %(end)s' def __init__(self, start=None, end=None): self.start = start self.end = end def set_source_expressions(self, exprs): self.start, self.end = exprs def get_source_expressions(self): return [Value(self.start), Value(self.end)] def as_sql(self, compiler, connection): connection.ops.check_expression_support(self) start, end = self.window_frame_start_end(connection, self.start.value, self.end.value) return self.template % { 'frame_type': self.frame_type, 'start': start, 'end': end, }, [] def __repr__(self): return '<%s: %s>' % (self.__class__.__name__, self) def get_group_by_cols(self): return [] def __str__(self): if self.start is not None and self.start < 0: start = '%d %s' % (abs(self.start), connection.ops.PRECEDING) elif self.start is not None and self.start == 0: start = connection.ops.CURRENT_ROW else: start = connection.ops.UNBOUNDED_PRECEDING if self.end is not None and self.end > 0: end = '%d %s' % (self.end, connection.ops.FOLLOWING) elif self.end is not None and self.end == 0: end = connection.ops.CURRENT_ROW else: end = connection.ops.UNBOUNDED_FOLLOWING return self.template % { 'frame_type': self.frame_type, 'start': start, 'end': end, } def window_frame_start_end(self, connection, start, end): raise NotImplementedError('Subclasses must implement window_frame_start_end().')
[docs]class RowRange(WindowFrame): frame_type = 'ROWS' def window_frame_start_end(self, connection, start, end): return connection.ops.window_frame_rows_start_end(start, end)
[docs]class ValueRange(WindowFrame): frame_type = 'RANGE' def window_frame_start_end(self, connection, start, end): return connection.ops.window_frame_range_start_end(start, end)
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