The Internet is a hostile environment. Before deploying your Django project, you should take some time to review your settings, with security, performance, and operations in mind.
Django includes many security features. Some are built-in and always enabled. Others are optional because they aren’t always appropriate, or because they’re inconvenient for development. For example, forcing HTTPS may not be suitable for all websites, and it’s impractical for local development.
Performance optimizations are another category of trade-offs with convenience. For instance, caching is useful in production, less so for local development. Error reporting needs are also widely different.
The following checklist includes settings that:
- must be set properly for Django to provide the expected level of security;
- are expected to be different in each environment;
- enable optional security features;
- enable performance optimizations;
- provide error reporting.
Many of these settings are sensitive and should be treated as confidential. If you’re releasing the source code for your project, a common practice is to publish suitable settings for development, and to use a private settings module for production.
The secret key must be a large random value and it must be kept secret.
Make sure that the key used in production isn’t used anywhere else and avoid committing it to source control. This reduces the number of vectors from which an attacker may acquire the key.
Instead of hardcoding the secret key in your settings module, consider loading it from an environment variable:
import os SECRET_KEY = os.environ['SECRET_KEY']
or from a file:
with open('/etc/secret_key.txt') as f: SECRET_KEY = f.read().strip()
You must never enable debug in production.
You’re certainly developing your project with DEBUG = True, since this enables handy features like full tracebacks in your browser.
For a production environment, though, this is a really bad idea, because it leaks lots of information about your project: excerpts of your source code, local variables, settings, libraries used, etc.
This setting is required to protect your site against some CSRF attacks. If you use a wildcard, you must perform your own validation of the Host HTTP header, or otherwise ensure that you aren’t vulnerable to this category of attacks.
If you’re using a cache, connection parameters may be different in development and in production.
Cache servers often have weak authentication. Make sure they only accept connections from your application servers.
If you’re using Memcached, consider using cached sessions to improve performance.
Database connection parameters are probably different in development and in production.
Database passwords are very sensitive. You should protect them exactly like SECRET_KEY.
For maximum security, make sure database servers only accept connections from your application servers.
If you haven’t set up backups for your database, do it right now!
See Managing static files (CSS, images) for more information.
Any website which allows users to log in should enforce site-wide HTTPS to avoid transmitting access tokens in clear. In Django, access tokens include the login/password, the session cookie, and password reset tokens. (You can’t do much to protect password reset tokens if you’re sending them by email.)
Protecting sensitive areas such as the user account or the admin isn’t sufficient, because the same session cookie is used for HTTP and HTTPS. Your web server must redirect all HTTP traffic to HTTPS, and only transmit HTTPS requests to Django.
Once you’ve set up HTTPS, enable the following settings.
Setting DEBUG = False disables several features that are only useful in development. In addition, you can tune the following settings.
Enabling persistent database connections can result in a nice speed-up when connecting to the database accounts for a significant part of the request processing time.
This helps a lot on virtualized hosts with limited network performance.
By the time you push your code to production, it’s hopefully robust, but you can’t rule out unexpected errors. Thankfully, Django can capture errors and notify you accordingly.
Review your logging configuration before putting your website in production, and check that it works as expected as soon as you have received some traffic.
See Logging for details on logging.
ADMINS will be notified of 500 errors by email.
See Error reporting for details on error reporting by email.
Customize the default error views¶
Django includes default views and templates for several HTTP error codes. You may want to override the default templates by creating the following templates in your root template directory: 404.html, 500.html, 403.html, and 400.html. The default views should suffice for 99% of Web applications, but if you desire to customize them, see these instructions which also contain details about the default templates:
If you’re using Python 2.6.8+, it’s strongly recommended that you invoke the Python process running your Django application using the -R option or with the PYTHONHASHSEED environment variable set to random.
These options help protect your site from denial-of-service (DoS) attacks triggered by carefully crafted inputs. Such an attack can drastically increase CPU usage by causing worst-case performance when creating dict instances. See oCERT advisory #2011-003 for more information.
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